Selasa, 29 Juni 2010

Makalah Tenses


Plural forms of the tenses is time. time in the English language there are four different and each is divided to four parts. so are all of sixteen. tenses is also a verb form when associated with a time of occurrence. This tenses we can not compare with the structure of Indonesian for Indonesian Language is not known the existence of similar structures tenses.

Based on the above facts, the writer tries to make a presentation about the tenses. Tenses are typically used to assist us in using the English language. Tenses in the English language education should always be learned. This is done so that the student or student use of tenses is not wrong in using sentences or speak in the English language. Though for some people in the education community is nothing new tenses, but in some other circles it is not known at all or at least never tried to learn it.

This has led the authors to try to write about tenses, because the writer wanted to know how far the use of tenses in the education community and among the generally known or studied.


We are turning to praise and thanksgiving to God Almighty. Thanks to his gift of love and the author of this paper can be completed properly. In this paper, the authors will explain about the use of tenses and how to understand it.

For the education community lessons on tenses was not a taboo anymore because in the english language education have often studied the use of tenses. however there are still many do not understand the education community in the use of tenses. And for that the author wants to present more about tenses.

Of course there are still many shortcomings and weaknesses in this paper, therefore it is constructive criticism and suggestions from readers are expected to improve in the future.

Sibolga, 2010


















The number of tenses in a language may be controversial, because the term tense is often misconstrued to represent any combination of temporal expression, additional aspects, and even mood. In many texts the term tense may erroneously indicate qualities of uncertainty, frequency, completion, duration, possibility, and even whether information derives from experience or hearsay (the last two are evidentiality). These are in fact not tenses, but traditional nomenclature often classes them as such. In reality, all languages have the same tenses. These are normally divided into three groups-present, past, and future with each being a range within a given scope. For instance, past tenses are those in which the temporal reference of content verb (Time of Assertion, Time of Completion, or Time of Evaluation) occurs before the temporal reference of the utterance itself (Time of Utterance). Past tenses can range from general past, to immediate past, to distant or even very distant past with the only difference between them being the distance on the timeline between the temporal reference points.

Tenses are broadly classified as present, past, or future. Within these broad classifications exist many possible tenses. The difference among these tenses is primarily one of degrees of temporal distance from the Time of Utterance. For instance, within the general category of past tenses, there may further exist immediate past, distant past, far distant past, and remote past with the only difference between them being an increase in distance from the time of utterance along the timeline of that utterance.

Some languages also distinguish not just between past, present, and future, but also nonpast, nonpresent, nonfuture. Each of these latter tenses incorporates two of the former, without specifying which.




Tenses represent a contrast of temporal references along the timeline of an utterance. All languages use the same tenses -- present, past and future, however the expression of these tenses cannot always be translated directly from one language to another. While verbs in all languages have typical forms by which they are identified and indexed in dictionaries, usually the most common present tense or an infinitive, their use in methods for expressing tense varies among languages.

There are languages (such as isolating languages, like Chinese) in which tense is not inflected through verb forms or expressed structurally, but is instead implied through the use of temporal adverbs when needed, and some (such as Japanese) in which temporal information appears via the use of inflected adjectives. In some languages (such as Russian) a single verb may be inflected to indicate aspect and tense together.

Tense in English is grouped into two types -- pure tense and modal tense. Pure tense refers to expressions of present, past, and future tenses in which secondary temporal reference (Time of Assertion, Time of Completion, or Time of Evaluation) is known or perceived to be fully certain. In other words, pure tense refers to expressions in which the attestation is known or thought to be true. Modal tense on the other hand, refers to expressions of present, past, or future in which the certainty of the attestation is not fully certain. In English these forms are expressed with the addition of a modal, modal phrase, or modal adverb.

Only the past tenses in English are expressed by declining the verb. In all raw and perfected aspects, past tense is expressed using the præterite form of the aspectual auxiliary (did, was/were, had) in periphrastic form. In the non-durational aspects (commonly referred to as the Simple Aspect), past tenses may be expressed via a special inflected form in which the aspectual auxiliary 'did' is omitted and the præterite of the content verb is used. This form is only possible in some affirmative statements. In all other types of utterance, the periphrastic form must be employed.

Present tenses are expressed via an unmarked form similar to those of the past tenses, but with the aspectual auxiliary only declined for agreement with person and number (do/does, am/is/are, have/has) in periphrastic forms. As with past tenses inflected forms may be used for certain affirmative statements.

Pure future tenses in English are expressed in the same way as the present tenses but with the addition of a future-marking adverb or time phrase.

Modal Tenses in English are expressed using either the fully undeclined modal form, or a pure tense form with an additional modal adverb or phrase. Modal tense is most often used in English for expressing futurity.

Modal Future refers to any of eight future forms in which the attestation cannot be known to be true due to the uncertain nature of future outcomes. These forms vary by certainty and always express that level of future certainty within the scope of a supporting mood.


1. Present Tense

1. Menyatakan kebiasaan yang dilakukan berulang-ulang

Ex: Ali always goes to school every day

2. Menyatakan kebenaran umum

Ex: the earth is round or the sun rises in the east and set up in the west

3. Mengutip suatu berita, pengumuman, buku, dsb

Ex: in her letter says : my brother studies every day

Cat: biasanya memakai verb: say, advise, warm

4. Digunakan untuk headline Koran, majalah, dsb

Ex: soeharto visits tommy

5. Perbuatan yang direncanakan akan segera dilakukan di waktu dekat

Ex: the train leaves by the at 09.00 train this afternoon

6. Perbuatan atau peristiwa yang terenca atau terjadwal akan segera dilakukan dan terkait dengan aktivitas wisata

Ex: the bus leaves Surabaya at 09.00 PM tomorrow and arrives in jogja at 04.00AM

7. Untuk narasi drama, untuk menggambarkan jalannya urutan cerita dan juga digunakan untuk komentar acara radio, tv, peristiwa olahraga.

Ex: kurniawan takes ball from aroel. He brings the ball to the middle and gives it to ronaldo who is standing free not so far from the penalty area

8. persoalan yang dilakukan, ada atau terjadi saat ini

Ex: Indonesia has more than 27 provinces

I like to watch the Italian soccer game in rcti on Sunday night

9. Situasi atau keadaan yang kita lihat dan ketahui saat ini

Ex: today gasoline is very expensive

10. Keberadaan sesuatu yang kita lihat dan ketahui saat ini

Ex: basakih is the biggest tample in bali

Job opportunity are limited in our country

11. Menyuruh atau melarang suatu pekerjaan

Ex: turn off the tv

Don’t pick her up after night

12. Memberi saran atau nasehat

Ex: why don’t you meet him and tell the truth?

Is it better if you keep your promise

13. Dapat digunakan pengganti present continous jika verb yang digunakan tidak dapat di –ING ex: agree, believe, consider, except, like, know, wish,

Ex: I love you

Udin likes radio

14. Untuk menyatakan peristiwa saat ini

Ex: mary sings beautiful

The dog bark loudly

Time duration

Adverb of time : every day, on Sunday, from time to time, three times per day, once a week

Adverb of frequency: always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, never, generally, rarely, now and then


* verb yang akhiran SS, SH, CH dan O ditambah ES

ex: kisses, washes, watches, goes

* verb yang akhiran Y before konsonan (HM) diubah menjadi I dan ditambah ES

Ex: carries, cries, hurries.

* verb yang akhiran Y before vocal (HH) langsung ditambah S

Ex: plays, says.

2. Present Continous Tense

1. Menyatakan perbuatan atau peristiwa yang terjadi saat ini dan masih berlangsung saat berbicara

Ex: she is watching TV now

2. Hal atau peristiwa yang sedang dalam proses atau kerangka dikerjakan

Ex: we are taking course in Egypt

Ani writing a novel this year

3. Mengungkapkan rencana yang sudah pasti akan dilakukan di waktu dekat.

Ex: we are visiting him tonight

4. Perbuatan yang berulang-ulang atau sepertinya terus menerus dan mengungkapkan kejengkelan, kemalasan, keluhan. (biasa memakai adverb f frequency: always, continually, constantly, forever)

Ex: rina is alaways coming late

My grandfather always leaving their dirty plates after eating.

5. Kebiasaan yang bersifat sementara

Ex: I am living in makassar at the moment

We are staying at hotel

6. Situasi yang berubah-ubah

Ex: the population of the world is rising very fast

Is his health getting better

Time Duration

At present : saat ini

At the moment : untuk sementara waktu

Righ now : sekarang ini

This week, now

For the time being : untuk sementara waktu ini

Verb non progressive

* verb yang menunjukkan keadaan mental (mental state)

Ex: know, realize, understand, believe, prefer, recognize, mean, want, need, forget, remember

* emotional state (keadaan emosi)

Ex: love, like, hate, dislike, appreciate, envy, mind, care

* possession (kepemilikan)

Ex: have, belong, posses, own

* verb yang menunjukkan aktivitas panca indera ( sense of human)

Ex: hear, smell, taste, see

3. Past Tense

1. aktifitas atau perbuatan yang terjadi di waktu lampau di sebut waktunya

Ex: she went to makassar last week

2. peristiwa yang terjadi di waktu lampau yang diketahui dan dinyatakan melalui pertanyaan

Ex: when did they visit you?

Whwn did you buy this camera?

3. perbuatan di masa lampau yang sudah jelas terjadi tetapi tidak disebutkan secara pasti waktu kejadiannya

Ex: I bough new car in Jakarta

4. kebiasaan di waktu lampau

Ex: they always carried umbrella

They never drank wine

I would smoke a pack of cigarette

I was used to smoking whwn he was young

5. peristiwa di waktu lampau (tdk disebutkan secara jelas waktunya)tetapi waktunya berselang beberapa lama dari waktu diucapkannya

Ex: angga lived in bandung for a long time. But he is not living there now

Ahmad worked for that company for ten years. But he doesn’t work there anymore now.

Time Duration

2 days ago, yesterday, in 1999, last year, an hour ago.

4. Past continous Tense

1. perbuatan yang sedang berlangsung selama beberapa waktu secara tidak diketahui kapan akhirnya.

Ex: they were discussing something for hours(berjam-jam)

2. aktivitas lampau dengan tanda waktu berupa 2 buah keterangan waktu

Ex: ani was washing car at 07.00this morning / on july last year

3. suatu hal yang mengandung makna yang berangsur-angsur

Ex: the wind was blowing hard

The weather was getting cold when it was darker

4. peristiwa di masa lampau dengan waktu tertentu

Ex: I was watching tv all day yesterday.

5. peristiwa yg terjadi berurutan di masa lampau (kejadian kedua terjadi dimana kejadian pertama masih terjadi)

Ex: I was studying when someone knocked the door

6. aktifitas atau perbuatan dilakukan bersamaan dgn aktifitas lain

Ex: I was reading book while my mother was cooking rice

Time Duration

* Adanya tanda waktu yang jelas

Ex: – at 07.00 last nigh, – on july 1999, – from 06.00-09.00

* Biasa dengan conjunction

Ex: when, while, as, and

5. Present Perfect Tense

1. kejadian di waktu lampau dan masih ada hubungannya dengan waktu kini

Ex: ahmad has taken my pen

2. peristiwa yang baru saja terjadi

Ex: she has just finished her homework

3. peristiwa yang pernah dilakukan dan masih akan dilakukan

4. kejadian di masa lampau dan terus berlangsung hingga sekarang ini

Ex: ani has loved me for all my life

Ahmad has lived in makassar since 1999

5. peristiwa yang diawali waktu lampau dan berhenti pd saat bicara

Ex: I haven’t seen you for weeks. Where have you been?

6. pengalaman yang pernah terjadi atau dilakukan

Ex: I have once live in London

He has never met ahamad before

7. perbuatan yang berulang-ulang sejak dulu (repetition of an activity)

Ex: they have explained the case three times

Time Expression

* just, already, not yet, never, recently(baru2 ini), lately(akhir2 ini)

* So far, until now, up to now, up to the present (sampai saat ini)

* all my life, ever, ever since( sejak saat itu), all day, still, almost.

* time duration lamanya waktu melakukan pekerjaan

Since yang diikuti:

- part of time : since last year, since 3 days ago, since 2000

- kalimat since I left the school

for yang diikuti

- period of time : for three days, for 3 week

* sering juga keterangan waktu : this week, this morning

6. Present Perfect Tense (s + have,has +3c)

1. keadaan atau aktifitas yang sudah terjadi beberapa waktu lalu hingga saat ini masih berlangsung

Ex: I have been living here for 3 month

It has been raining since this morning

2. perbuatan atau aktifitas diawali di masa lampau dan baru saja selesai saat bicara

Oh, here is my key. I have been loking for it all day

The boy have been waiting here since 09.00 for you

3. perbuatan atau peristiwa yang diulang-ulang dalam present perfect tense ( degn time phrase)

Ex: I have been writing a letter since breakfast

Time Duration

* since (since last year, since two week ago, since last year)

* for / during : for two days, during 5 year, for than more a year

7. Past Perfetct Tense ( s + had + 3c)

1. perbuatan yg dimulai/terjadi di waktu lamapau dan terus berlangsung ataupun selesaidi waktu lampau

Ex: Ani had lived in that home since aroel bought it ten year ago.

My father had been a teacher for 15 year in 1995

2. menggantikan simple past apabila mengacu pd peristiwa/perbuatan di masa lampau yg terjadi dalam waktu tertentu.

Ex: bill was in hospital. He had broken his leg in an accident

3. suatu aktifitas yang dilakukan sebelum aktifitas lain di waktu lampau

Ex: ani had worked as adoktor before got married with ahmad

After ahmad had graduated from smu, he continued his study in university

Before police came, the thief had escaped

Time Duration

* after, as soon as, until/till, before, when

8. Past Perfect Continous Tense (s + had + been + 3c)

1. meyatakan suatu peristiwa yang telah berlangsung selama beberapa saat ketika terjadi peristiwa/perbuatan di masa lampau.

Ex: we had been studying English (HM) when they came

I had been sleeping for two hour when I visited her yesterday

2. memberikan tekanan pada lamanya waktu yang dihabiskan untuk menyelesaikan sesuatu di masa lampau, sebelum aktifitas lain dilakukan.

Ex: I had been going with ahmad for two year before basri left us.

3. menggantikan past perfect tense untuk suatu peristiwa yang berulang-ulang.

Ex: ani had been looking for her missing radio.

Time Expression

For … before, before  + clause

Until, whwn  + clause

9. Future Tense

1. perbuatan yang akan terjadi di waktu tertentu di masa akan dating

Ex: I will marry you next year

2. digunakan untuk conditional sentence(kalimat bersyarat)jenis satu induk kalimat(main clause)

Ex: if you go out, I shall/will go out

He will help you if you ask him politely

3. suatu kebiasaan yang akan dilakukan

Ex: the bird will come back next spring

4. peristiwa yang diharapkan, diduga, dikhawatirkan pembicara akan terjadi. Dan seringkali memakai kata2: sure, afraid, worry, believe, hope, except, fear, suppose, perphas, probably, possibly

Ex: I am sure that Angga will be loyal to me

She hopes that they will finish their work tomorrow

5. sebagai induk kalimat suatu ‘ time clause’ yang menunjukan hubungan waktu, biasanya time expression: whwn, as soon as, after, before,

Ex: aqil will buy some candies as soon as he gets some money from mother

After the class end, ani will play basket ball

6. untuk menyatakan permintaan

Ex: shall I close the door

Will you help me

7. menyatakan pengumuman resmi tentang peristiwa yang akan terjadi dan juga untuk ramalan cuaca dalam siaran radio, tv, atau Koran

Ex: suharto will open the turnamen of football tomorrow

On the radio fog will soon clear in all area

8. ‘unpremiditates intentions’ maksud dan keinginan yang akan dilakukan bukan karena rencana sebelum tetapi karena kehendak semata

Ex: my balon hurts. All righ I will buy you another one

9. kelanjutan rencana yang telah ditetapkan semula (gunakan be going to)

Ex: my car is broken, can you help me. Ok I will repair it tomorrow.

What will you do tomorrow? I am going to repair my room mates radio

Time expression

* semua ket waktu yang menunjukkan yang akan datang

Bila ordinary s + to be + going to + be

nB: untuk peristiwa yang sudah dekat benar (lebih dekat dari going to) biasa dinyatakan dgn: s + to be + about/on the project (verge)of

ex: I am about to go to out for shopping

the tree is on the point of falling down

10. Future Continous Tense

1. perbuatan yang sedang berlangsung di waktu tertentu di masa akan datang

Ex: what will you be doing tomorrow morning

I will be getting married on july 2009

2. peristiwa yang sedang terjadi ketika peristiwa lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang

Ex: he will be watching tv when you visit him

3. perbuatan yang akan dilaksanakan tapi bukan merupakan hal yang direncanakan

Ex: she will be helping anna tomorrow

4. digunakan pada kalimat tanya menggantikan present future agar pertanyaan tsb lebih halus dan lebih sopan

Ex: what will you be doing tomorrow morning

5. sesuatu hal yang akan segera berlangsung/terjadi

Ex: when he gets back. He will be getting married soon

Time Expression

· at 07.00 tonight

· at this time next week

· all morning next Sunday

· by this time next week

11. Future Perfect Tense

1. suatu kegiatan yang diperkirakan sudah selesai dilakukan sebelum/hingga batas waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang

Ex: before at 09.00 tonight, I will have completed this

2. aktifitas di masa yang akan datang yang diperkirakan sudah selesai dilakukan sebelum aktifitas lain dilakukan (sesudahnya digunakan simple present)

Ex: our house will renovated when our first son is born

They will have came here before we have lunch

3. suatu hal diperkirakan akan benar-benar terjadi di masa yang akan datang

Ex: The company will have lost many product if most of the worker don’t wont to work

If the rain doesn’t stop till tomorrow, we are sure that the water will have swept everything around us

4. peristiwa yang sudah berlangsung di masa sebelumnya dan akan telah selesai di waktu akan datang

Ex: he will have finished reading the novel by the end of this month

Time Expression

· in the two year’s time

· by the end of , by, by the next agustus

12. Present Future Perfect Continous Tense

1. aktifitas/hal yang diperkirakan sudah dilakukan dan akan terus dilakukan dalam jangka waktu tertentu di masa akan datang.

Ex: I will have been studying English for about two month by the end of this month

2. sama di atas, tapi sebelum aktifitas lain terjadi/dilakukan di masa akan datang

Ex: i will have been studying for two month before I go to cairo

3. aktifitas yang telah dilakukan secara berulang-ulang

Ex: by the end of this month brasil will have been playing in the world cup final games six times

Time Expression

Biasanya hadir untuk menunjukkan:

· Jangka waktu : for two week, on july 2, 1999

· Batasan waktu : by the end of this year, by this time next week, for two year by the next month, for…by..

13. Past Future

1. Rencana yang akan dilakukan di waktu lalu tapi batal karena sebab tertentu

Ex: aroel would give ani card last month unfortunately he left in makassar

2. bermakna seharusnya untuk menyatakan rencana yang gagal

Ex: she should be a nourse but she didn’t have money

3. bermakna akan dalam direct – indirect

Ex: I would take my pen

4. bermakna akan dalam ‘conditional sentense’

14. Past Future Continous Tense

1. aktifitas yang seharusnya tengah berlangsung pada saat tertentu di waktu lampau

Ex: yunus would be going abroad in june last year but his mother didn’t permit

Time Expression

Sama dengan past continous

15. Past Future Perfect Tense

1. prediksi bahwa suatu hal/aktifitas sudah selesai dilakukan sebelum batas waktu tertentu di masa lalu

Ex: anna would have finished he study before the end of September last year but she took one semester vacation

2. suatu hal yang seharusnya sudah terjadi sebelum/ketika aktifitas lain terjadi di masa lampau

Ex: my sister would have born her firs son by the time I entered in smu two years ago

Time Expression

Sama dengan past perfect

Before 9.00 last night, before 1999

16. Past Future Perfect Continous

Hal/aktifitas yang seharusnya berlangsung dalam jangka waktu tertentu di masa lalu.

Ex: andi always come late, our teacher would have been being teraching for an hour when he came yesterday like usual. Unfortunately she had finished before andi came

Time Signalnya

Sama dengan past perfect continous

2.4. Table of English Tenses




Signal Words

Simple Present

A: He speaks.
N: He does not speak.
Q: Does he speak?

  • action in the present taking place once, never or several times
  • facts
  • actions taking place one after another
  • action set by a timetable or schedule

always, every …, never, normally, often, seldom, sometimes, usually
if sentences type I (If I talk, …)

Present Progressive

A: He is speaking.
N: He is not speaking.
Q: Is he speaking?

  • action taking place in the moment of speaking
  • action taking place only for a limited period of time
  • action arranged for the future

at the moment, just, just now, Listen!, Look!, now, right now

Simple Past

A: He spoke.
N: He did not speak.
Q: Did he speak?

  • action in the past taking place once, never or several times
  • actions taking place one after another
  • action taking place in the middle of another action

yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday
if sentence type II (If I talked, …)

Past Progressive

A: He was speaking.
N: He was not speaking.
Q: Was he speaking?

  • action going on at a certain time in the past
  • actions taking place at the same time
  • action in the past that is interrupted by another action

when, while, as long as

Present Perfect Simple

A: He has spoken.
N: He has not spoken.
Q: Has he spoken?

  • putting emphasis on the result
  • action that is still going on
  • action that stopped recently
  • finished action that has an influence on the present
  • action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking

already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now

Present Perfect Progressive

A: He has been speaking.
N: He has not been speaking.
Q: Has he been speaking?

  • putting emphasis on the course or duration (not the result)
  • action that recently stopped or is still going on
  • finished action that influenced the present

all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week

Past Perfect Simple

A: He had spoken.
N: He had not spoken.
Q: Had he spoken?

  • action taking place before a certain time in the past
  • sometimes interchangeable with past perfect progressive
  • putting emphasis only on the fact (not the duration)

already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day
if sentence type III (If I had talked, …)

Past Perfect Progressive

A: He had been speaking.
N: He had not been speaking.
Q: Had he been speaking?

  • action taking place before a certain time in the past
  • sometimes interchangeable with past perfect simple
  • putting emphasis on the duration or course of an action

for, since, the whole day, all day

Future I Simple

A: He will speak.
N: He will not speak.
Q: Will he speak?

  • action in the future that cannot be influenced
  • spontaneous decision
  • assumption with regard to the future

in a year, next …, tomorrow
If-Satz Typ I (If you ask her, she will help you.)
assumption: I think, probably, perhaps

Future I Simple

(going to)

A: He is going to speak.
N: He is not going to speak.
Q: Is he going to speak?

  • decision made for the future
  • conclusion with regard to the future

in one year, next week, tomorrow

Future I Progressive

A: He will be speaking.
N: He will not be speaking.
Q: Will he be speaking?

  • action that is going on at a certain time in the future
  • action that is sure to happen in the near future

in one year, next week, tomorrow

Future II Simple

A: He will have spoken.
N: He will not have spoken.
Q: Will he have spoken?

  • action that will be finished at a certain time in the future

by Monday, in a week

Future II Progressive

A: He will have been speaking.
N: He will not have been speaking.
Q: Will he have been speaking?

  • action taking place before a certain time in the future
  • putting emphasis on the course of an action

for …, the last couple of hours, all day long

Conditional I Simple

A: He would speak.
N: He would not speak.
Q: Would he speak?

  • action that might take place

if sentences type II
(If I were you, I would go home.)

Conditional I Progressive

A: He would be speaking.
N: He would not be speaking.
Q: Would he be speaking?

  • action that might take place
  • putting emphasis on the course / duration of the action

Conditional II Simple

A: He would have spoken.
N: He would not have spoken.
Q: Would he have spoken?

  • action that might have taken place in the past

if sentences type III
(If I had seen that, I would have helped.)

Conditional II Progressive

A: He would have been speaking.
N: He would not have been speaking.
Q: Would he have been speaking?

  • action that might have taken place in the past
  • puts emphasis on the course / duration of the action



3.1. Conclusion

Based on the above exposition, it can be concluded that:

a. The use tenses are needed to use the English language.

b. If we want to deepen the English language we must first find out about the tenses, as in English tenses is very important to master. For us to better understand English and proficient in the conversation.

c. Many uses in studying English tenses.

3.2. Suggestion

At the end of this paper, the authors wanted to deliver advice to several parties, especially to readers. Submission of this advice pertaining to all activities that have been done directly some time ago,

Some writers want to convey suggestions are as follows:

1. In each of the English language education should give priority in studying tenses.

2. Should we need to know in the use of tenses tenses are good according to the formula or according to function. Because of these tenses variety of uses in discussing the use of English.

Such suggestions and hope this writer wishes to convey a useful input for the relevant, as consideration for improvement in future. Thank you.


Panjaitan.Natalina Kristina dana.2010.TENSES. Belum diterbitkan. Sibolga









NAMA : Dana Kristina Natalina Panjaitan

NIM : 090802065




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