Selasa, 17 April 2012

Applying Strategy to Enhance Capabilities DRTA Student Reading Comprehension

1. Background of the study
Reading as one of the basic language skills to be mastered in language learning. Usually taught in conjunction with three other language skills. As one of language skills, reading gets more attention than any other language skills. There is a high priority. However, many students do not have enough skills in reading and their reading achievement is low.
This study is a class action research and aims to improv students' reading comprehension skills through drta (directed reading thinking activity). This strategy was chosen because it helps develop critical reading skills and encourage active reading. In addition, this strategy has proven, through many studies, have been able to increase of reading comprehension achievement and student involvement in the learning process.
In the 21st century, students will have access to more information than any other students before them. They must learn to locate, assess, and use this information wisely. Today’s students must not only read the words on the page and understand them, but they must also think critically about the information they are reading. The Directed Reading - Thinking Activity (Stauffer, 1969) is an explicit teaching method that focuses student attention on the purpose for reading. It can be used in any content area and with fiction or nonfiction text. The DR-TA encourages readers to become actively engaged with the text through a three-step process: sample the text, make a prediction, then read the text to confirm the prediction. Good readers make and verify predictions as they read. This activity can assist students in developing that skill.
DRTA, developed by Russell Stauffer (1969), involves reading for a purpose determined by the students. DRTA helps students develop skills in reading and thinking. It encourages risk-taking via prediction. While DRTA can be successfully employed at any grade level, it is recommended as an integral part of the Language Arts programme in grades one through six. It is a technique which motivates and encourages reluctant readers.
DRTA is a dynamic group reading activity in which individuals' hypotheses and print mesh to foster discussion. Background knowledge is brought to the reading experience. To provide an environment for this process, Stauffer recommends groups of eight to twelve students.
Directed Reading Thinking Activity has been shown to be a motivating approach to reading. It stimulates thinking and makes the students, not the teacher, responsible for setting the purpose.

Review of Literature
Directed Reading-Thinking Activity
A. The Nature of Writing
Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) is a reading comprehension strategy that is used in each of the three stages of reading (pre-reading, during reading, and post-reading). It emphasizes prediction (thinking ahead), verification (confirmation), and reading with a purpose.
DRTA helps students realize that prediction and verification of predictions are essential parts of the reading process. Students learn that by reading with a purpose, they can more easily focus their predictions.
Good readers automatically predict and confirm what will or will not happen in the text and merge their knowledge and ideas with the author’s. Poor readers do not make predictions or verifications as they read. DRTA helps readers learn to make predictions before they read and verify those predictions as they read.
Use DRTA with students who have difficulty comprehending text or who need help understanding that reading is an interactive process between the author and the reader. Teach DRTA in-group or one-on-one situations. After working through the strategy with the students (guided practice), encourage them to use it independently.
Below are the guidelines for helping students apply DRTA in each of the three stages of reading.
Pre-Reading
1. Survey the text with the students, looking for clues about the content – clues such as titles, section headings, key words, illustrations.
2. Help the students make predictions about the text’s content.
3. Have students write their predictions down on a Prediction Verification Checklist, as you write them on the board or overhead transparency.
4. Make sure the students understand how to use the checklist to classify their predictions as: proved, disproved, partially right/wrong, requires revision, not mentioned, not enough information.
5. Help the students establish a purpose for reading by directing them to read the text to determine whether it proves or disproves their predictions.
During Reading
1. Have the students read the text, silently or aloud, individually or in groups, to verify their predictions.
2. Instruct the students to place a check mark under the appropriate category on the Prediction Verification Checklist as they read the text.
Post-Reading
1. Have the students compare their predictions with the actual content of the text.
2. Ask the students to analyze their checklist and determine how well they predicted the content of the text.
3. Verify that the students have learned the DRTA strategy by having them answer the following metacognitive questions:
• What is the name of the strategy you learned?
• How does the strategy help you understand what you read?
• What should you do before you read? While you read? After you read?
Why Is It Important?
Most students require explicit instruction in reading comprehension strategies (Tierney 1982).
Good readers make predictions and verify or refute them as they read. They also make adjustments to what they think will come next based on the text. DR-TA is a strategy that explicitly teaches students to good reading habits.
How Can You Make It Happen?
Before using this strategy with students, create a classroom climate in which students are free to state their ideas and share their thinking. This is especially necessary for students who are not risk-takers. Because these students want to be correct the first time they answer a question, DR-TA can be challenging for them. DR-TA asks students to predict the unknown in a text, and at times students will be incorrect. For some students, you may want to consider having them write their predictions in a journal rather than posting them on an overhead transparency or the chalkboard. Encourage students not to be intimidated by taking a risk and not to feel pressure to state correct predictions.
As an introductory lesson to DR-TA, select a reading passage, and determine several appropriate stopping points within it for students to make, verify, or modify predictions. Use sticky notes to mark students' copies of the text in advance to prevent students from reading too far ahead. Be cautious not to interrupt the flow of the text too many times, as this will adversely affect comprehension.
When you use this strategy, guide and stimulate students' thinking through the use of questions. Pose open-ended questions, and encourage students to state their predictions, valuing and supporting all ideas. Wait a few seconds after asking a question, to allow students to process the information and form a prediction.
At the beginning of the lesson, write the title of the book or passage on an overhead transparency or the chalkboard. Ask students, "Given this title, what do you think the passage will be about?" Accept and record all predictions on the transparency or chalkboard. Ask students, "Why do you think that?" to encourage them to justify their responses and activate prior knowledge.
Preview the illustrations and/or headings of the passage. Ask students to revise their predictions based on this new information. Make changes to the predictions on the transparency or chalkboard.
Have students read silently. Stop them after the first section of the passage, and lead a class discussion to verify or modify predictions. Ask students to cite the text which caused them to confirm or change a prediction. Ask students, "What in the passage makes you think that? Can you prove it?" Make changes to the predictions on the transparency or chalkboard.
Repeat this process until students have read each section of the passage. Verify or modify the predictions made at the beginning of the lesson.
As students become more comfortable with this process, have each student write predictions in alearning log or on a piece of paper. Then, in small groups, students can discuss their predictions and share their thinking processes. Next ask students to write summary statements about how their predictions compared to the passage.
Using DR-TA in a heterogeneous group can be a challenge due to the range of reading levels that may be present. In this case, you may want to select two passages on the same topic – one higher-level and one lower-level. Divide the class into groups to read the text that is appropriate for them. These groups should share information as described in the previous parargraph.
If your students are not yet readers, the strategy is referred to as Directed Listening-Thinking Activity (DL-TA) and proceeds the same way, except you read the text to the class. To use DL-TA for challenged readers, have a taped version of the passage available. Listening to text read aloud provides challenged readers with opportunities to attend to and comprehend material that they would be unable to read for themselves (Gillet and Temple 1994).

The formulation of the problem is of great importance in research activity, because the problem is the object to be studied and sought a way out through research. This statement is relevant to that expressed by Suharsimi Arikunto in his study an Approach Procedure says that: "The issue should be a part of one's needs to be solved, people want to conduct research because he wanted to get the solution of the problem at hand." (Surahmad, 1989:22) From the opinion of the above can be concluded that the formulation of the problem has become a "needs" in one study, because without flow problem formulation and systematic research will not find the answer to the problem being studied. Meanwhile, Faisal Sanapiah argued in Education Research Methodology: The research needs to be defined and formulated the problem to be investigated. Affirmation of these problems at once describe the focus of the direction followed later in the process of research. Formulation of the problem is quite limited in scope to allow withdrawal of a firm conclusion. (Sudiyono, 1992:61) From the above definitions, we can conclude that something is problematic, would require solving. In the research we are required to seek a solution to the problem. Starting from this background that has been described above, then the problem can be formulated are:
1. Is there a role of guidance and counseling in overcoming learning difficulties of students in junior secondary school Wali Songo Village District Laweyan Sumberasih Probolinggo.
2. How does the role of guidance and counseling in overcoming learning difficulties of students in junior secondary school Wali Songo Village District Laweyan Sumberasih Probolinggo.

C. Research Objectives The goal of research in the scientific work is the target to be achieved through a series of research activities, because of all the cultivated must have a specific purpose in accordance with the problem. The purpose of the study will be helpful to the achievement of optimal results and can provide direction to the activities undertaken in the study. In accordance with these perceptions and berpijakpada formulation of the problem that has been mentioned, then this study has the objective:
1. Want to know the presence or absence of the role of guidance and counseling in overcoming learning difficulties of students in junior secondary school Wali Songo Village District Laweyan Sumberasih Probolinggo.
2. Want to find out how the role of guidance and counseling in dealing with students with learning disabilities at the junior secondary school guidance Wali Songo Village District Laweyan Sumberasih Probolinggo.
D. significance of research results is expected to be beneficial for all parties concerned primarily for the following parties: 1. For Teachers As a means to take the initiative in the context of refining the program so that the learning process between teachers as educators in schools and students as those who need to be educated can complement each other and work well together, so that student achievement will always increase. 2. As an input for the agency in taking the appropriate policy and provide / add facilities and infrastructure in order to provide excitement in teaching and learning in order to improve the quality and student achievement, while enhancing the quality of education. 3. For Authors For training materials in the writing of scientific papers, as well as additional information on guidance and counseling at the institution, especially in junior secondary school madrassa Wali Songo Village District Lawean Sumberasih Probolinggo.
E. Research Scope and Limitations of Research on the role of guidance and counseling in overcoming learning difficulties of students in junior secondary school Wali Songo Village Laweyan Sumberasih Probolinggo District has a very wide range. However, because of the limitations of time, effort, funds, and the capabilities of the author, then the scope is limited research on this issue as follows: 1. Characteristics of study sites, namely the general description of the site which covers the history of the founding of madrasas, organizational structure, and other data required in the study. 2. The forms and penyulihan guidance given by teachers to students either preventive or curative in overcoming learning difficulties of students. 3. Data on the acquisition scores of questionnaires that have been deployed to determine whether there is the role of guidance and counseling in overcoming learning difficulties of students in junior secondary school Wali Songo Village District Laweyan Sumberasih Probolinggo.

CHAPTER III METHODS
A. Sample thesis The draft study In order to search for valid data, the study compiled by the research design as effectively and efficiently as possible, so that in later writing does not take too long and can run smoothly as expected by the researchers. To obtain data about the role of guidance and counseling, researchers used a questionnaire method that provided students with questions-questions about parent activities related to the child's personality. The data were obtained using a questionnaire and then tabulated and placed in a table format by using the formula percentage (%) which was then followed by some analysis of the results of the questionnaire data that has been achieved. But before the research activities carried out, then first perform the following steps: 1) Preparation In an activity, preparations are elements that are very important. So also in research activities, preparation is the element that needs to be calculated with good cause that will either facilitate the course of the study. In connection with the title and the formulation of the problem mentioned in the previous chapter, the preparation in conducting this study are as follows: Example thesis a) Formulate a plan In this plan the author sets out some things like the following. 1) Title of research 2) The reason the study 3) Problems of research 4) The research objective 5) Object of the study 6) The method b) Permission to conduct research with a letter of introduction from Mr. Dean of the Faculty of Tarbiyah Islamic Institute Nurul Jadid Paiton Probolinggo, the author applied for permission to junior secondary school head Wali Songo Village District Laweyan Sumberasih Probolinggo. Thus the authors have obtained permission to conduct to conduct research in the area. c) Prepare a data collection tool that measures relating to older people, namely the set of instruments and questionnaires and interviews. 2) Implementation Once the preparation is considered mature, the next step was to conduct research. In the implementation phase of this research to collect the necessary data by using several methods, among others: * Interviews * Questionnaires * Documentation * Completion Upon completion of research activities, the authors began to formulate the next steps, namely: * Develop a framework of research reports by tabulating and analyzing data that has been obtained, which were consulted to Supervisor in the hope if there are things that need to be revised, will be conducted so as to obtain an optimal result. * Reports that have been completed and will be at stake in front of the Board of Examiners, and the results of this study duplicated and delivered to the parties concerned. B. Population and Study Sample 1. Population Population by Hadi Sutrisno are all individuals for whom the realities that obtained from samples that would be generalizable. While understanding the sample is part of the investigated individuals' (1994:70). Meanwhile, according to T. Raka Joni "is the entire population of individuals who are, who ever and there may be real which is the target of an investigation on" (t.th.: 13). Starting from the definition above, then in this study, the population is all students MTs. Wali Songo Village District Lawean Sumberasih Probolinggo totaling 98 people. 2. Study Sample definition of the sample, Suharsimi Arikunto states that, "The sample is partially or representative of the population under study" (1997:177). Furthermore Suharsimi states that: "For just ancer-ancer then when the subject is less than 100 over 100 better taken all, so the research is the study population, then if the subject is large can be taken between 10-15% or 20-25% or more depending on at least from: Example of a thesis. The ability of researchers looked at in terms of time, effort and funds. 2. Observation of a narrow land area of each subject, because it concerns the extent of the data. 3. The extent of risk borne by the researchers, for researchers who are at greater risk, the result will be greater "(1992:107) Based on the definition above, then in this study took a sample of students starting grade I to grade III. The number of students that writers make the sample are as follows: Class I Class II amounted to 15 students totaling 15 students numbered 10 students Class III Thus the number of samples in this study as many as 40 students. The sampling techniques (sampling) according to Saifuddin Azwar there are several kinds: 1. Probability is a probability sample samples sampling technique in which each element, the element or member of the population has an equal chance to be selected into the sample. Some ways of probability sampling techniques are as follows: * a simple random sampling (simple random sampling) is the process of sampling of the population has an equal chance to be drawn into the sample. * Sampling stratified (stratified random sampling) is a sampling process in which the state is not the same population (heterogeneous) * Sampling groups (cluster sampling) is a sampling process in which the state population is not known with certainty. * Sampling systematic (systematic random sampling) is a sampling process in which the elements or just the first member selected from a random sample, while the subsequent members are systematically selected based on a certain way. 2. Non-probability samples of non-probability sample is a sampling process in which every member of the population have the same opportunity to be selected into the sample. Various kinds of non-probability sampling technique as follows: * Sampling by chance (accidental sampling) is sampling by taking or anyone who happened to be there. * Sampling intentional (purposive sampling) the sampling process on the basis of the consideration required by the researcher in his research. (1998:87-89) Based on the theory of sampling conducted by the researchers is to use non-probability sampling technique by intentionally sampling. Example thesis
C. Data Collection Techniques To obtain the data corresponding to what is expected, so the data obtained it is completely valid, then in any research first must determine what methods will be used to receive and collect them. Because the method is the key to success in a study. The method used in collecting data in this study are as follows: 1. Methods Questionnaire questionnaire method can be performed in the presence of a number of written questions used to obtain information from respondents in terms of reports about his personal or other matters that he knew. (Arikunto, 1993:188) In this case the source data is 40 students were given questionnaires to obtain data on the implementation of guidance and counseling in junior secondary school Wali Songo Village District Lawean Sumberasih Probolinggo. 2. Documentation methods documentation method is to find data about things such as notes or variable transcripts, agendas, and so on. (Arikunto, 1993:198) In this study researchers used a method of documentation is to obtain data on the MTs. Wali Songo especially data on the number of students of students, educators and state employees, the organizational structure of institutions, facilities and infrastructure that exist at the agency.
D. Method of Data Analysis After holding a series of activities (research) by using some of the above methods, the data collected was analyzed using descriptive techniques. This technique is used to analyze qualitative data or data that can not be realized with the numbers

Minggu, 29 Januari 2012

bab 2

B. Problem formulation The formulation of the problem is of great importance in research activity, because the problem is the object to be studied and sought a way out through research. This statement is relevant to that expressed by Suharsimi Arikunto in his study an Approach Procedure says that: "The issue should be a part of one's needs to be solved, people want to conduct research because he wanted to get the solution of the problem at hand." (Surahmad, 1989:22) From the opinion of the above can be concluded that the formulation of the problem has become a "needs" in one study, because without flow problem formulation and systematic research will not find the answer to the problem being studied. Meanwhile, Faisal Sanapiah argued in Education Research Methodology: The research needs to be defined and formulated the problem to be investigated. Affirmation of these problems at once describe the focus of the direction followed later in the process of research. Formulation of the problem is quite limited in scope to allow withdrawal of a firm conclusion. (Sudiyono, 1992:61) From the above definitions, we can conclude that something is problematic, would require solving. In the research we are required to seek a solution to the problem. Starting from this background that has been described above, then the problem can be formulated are: 1. Is there a role of guidance and counseling in overcoming learning difficulties of students in junior secondary school Wali Songo Village District Laweyan Sumberasih Probolinggo. 2. How does the role of guidance and counseling in overcoming learning difficulties of students in junior secondary school Wali Songo Village District Laweyan Sumberasih Probolinggo. C. Research Objectives The goal of research in the scientific work is the target to be achieved through a series of research activities, because of all the cultivated must have a specific purpose in accordance with the problem. The purpose of the study will be helpful to the achievement of optimal results and can provide direction to the activities undertaken in the study. In accordance with these perceptions and berpijakpada formulation of the problem that has been mentioned, then this study has the objective: 1. Want to know the presence or absence of the role of guidance and counseling in overcoming learning difficulties of students in junior secondary school Wali Songo Village District Laweyan Sumberasih Probolinggo. 2. Want to find out how the role of guidance and counseling in dealing with students with learning disabilities at the junior secondary school guidance Wali Songo Village District Laweyan Sumberasih Probolinggo. D. Usefulness of research results is expected to be beneficial for all parties concerned primarily for the following parties: 1. For Teachers As a means to take the initiative in the context of refining the program so that the learning process between teachers as educators in schools and students as those who need to be educated can complement each other and work well together, so that student achievement will always increase. 2. As an input for the agency in taking the appropriate policy and provide / add facilities and infrastructure in order to provide excitement in teaching and learning in order to improve the quality and student achievement, while enhancing the quality of education. 3. For Authors For training materials in the writing of scientific papers, as well as additional information on guidance and counseling at the institution, especially in junior secondary school madrassa Wali Songo Village District Lawean Sumberasih Probolinggo. E. According to the research hypotheses in the book Suharsimi Arikunto an Approach Procedure Research Practice, states that "The hypothesis can be interpreted as a temporary answer to the problems of research, until proven by the data collected" (1997:67). The hypothesis in this study are as follows: 1. Working Hypothesis (Ha) "There is a role of guidance and counseling in overcoming learning difficulties of students in junior secondary school Wali Songo Gods Laweyan Sumberasih Probolinggo District". 2. Null hypothesis (Ho) "There is no role of guidance and counseling in overcoming learning difficulties of students in junior secondary school Wali Songo Gods Laweyan Sumberasih Probolinggo District". Example thesis F. Research Scope and Limitations of Research on the role of guidance and counseling in overcoming learning difficulties of students in junior secondary school Wali Songo Village Laweyan Sumberasih Probolinggo District has a very wide range. However, because of the limitations of time, effort, funds, and the capabilities of the author, then the scope is limited research on this issue as follows: 1. Characteristics of study sites, namely the general description of the site which covers the history of the founding of madrasas, organizational structure, and other data required in the study. 2. The forms and penyulihan guidance given by teachers to students either preventive or curative in overcoming learning difficulties of students. 3. Data on the acquisition scores of questionnaires that have been deployed to determine whether there is the role of guidance and counseling in overcoming learning difficulties of students in junior secondary school Wali Songo Village District Laweyan Sumberasih Probolinggo. G. Operational Definition operational definition in the preparation of this thesis is intended to avoid differences in interpretation of meaning to things that are essential which can cause confusion in interpreting the title, the purpose of research, as it also as a redactional explanation to be easily understood and accepted by reasonable so it does not happen dichotomy between the title of the discussion in this thesis. This operational definition is a form of discussion framework that is more directed and relevant to the issues that has to do with research. In accordance with the title "The Role of Guidance and Counseling in Overcoming Learning Difficulties Students", then the definition above restrictions include: a. The role of the Ministry of Education and Culture provides the meaning of the role, "The action taken by someone in an event" (Department of Education, 1991:751). Meanwhile, according to WJS. Poerwadarminto in Indonesian General Dictionary defines the role is, "matches that are part or in charge of mainly (in the occurrence of a thing or event)" (Poerwadarminto, 1997:735). Based on expert opinion, can the authors conclude that the role is anything that could lead to the occurrence of an event that others either directly or indirectly. b. Guidance and counseling guidance and counseling which in English is called Guidance and Couseling is a series of two words that when said guidance referred to is usually always followed by the word extension. Ben Walgito guidance provides definitions as follows: Guidance is a guidance, help and assistance given to individuals or a collection of individuals in avoiding or overcoming difficulties in his life so that individuals or a collection of individuals that can achieve the prosperity of his life. (Mapiere, 1997:735). From this opinion can be seen that the guidance is assistance provided to individuals who have difficulty living. In accordance with the existing potennsi so that they can live in prosperity and peace. In the activity, students need guidance in dealing with learning difficulties. Meanwhile, according to Ben Walgito sense extension is: Counseling is assistance provided to individuals in solving problems of life with interviews, in a manner appropriate to the circumstances faced by individuals to achieve well-being of his life. (Mapiere, 1997:04) From these two senses, there are similarities and differences. The equation is both a relief for individuals in dealing with life problems. While the difference, more extensive guidance from counseling, mentoring is more emphasis on curative aspects. But although different, the use of guidance counseling is always followed by the word. c. Cope with learning difficulties according to Tackle Big Indonesian Dictionary among others interpreted "Overcome" (MOEC, 1991:1005). While the difficulty is "objec difficult; something difficult, difficult. (MOEC, 1991: 971). While learning by Gagne (1984) is quoted as saying by Rachael Willis Dahan in his book Theories of Learning, which provides the definition of learning: "a process by which organisms change their behavior as a result of experience". (Dahan, 1989:11). Learning is a whole series of activities performed by a person who consciously lead to changes in knowledge and skills more or less permanent. (Dahan, 1989:06). Of the two terms above can be seen that meant overcoming learning difficulties is an attempt to overcome a difficult situation when individual learning activities. Example thesis of H. Systematics Systematics Discussion temporary discussion is a summary of the thesis, namely a description of the content and the overall thesis of systematics that can be used as a landing for the reader to examine. Sequentially in the systematics of this are as follows: CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In this introductory chapter presented the background of the problem, formulation of the problem, the purpose of research, usability research, research hypotheses, scope and limitations of the study, operational definitions and systematic discussion. CHAPTER II STUDY REFERENCES The literature review chapter is given of the boarding school, morality, and the study of the role of boarding schools in fostering morality of society. CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter will be given of the study design, study population and sample, research instruments, and data collection techniques. CHAPTER IV RESULTS In this chapter the research results will be presented on the presentation of data relating to the results obtained in the field of research, and analysis. CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS In this final chapter will be presented on the conclusion as a result of research and continued with suggestions that if can be used as food for thought for those concerned. CHAPTER II Review Books In Chapter II, here is filled with a literature review or matere, thesis theoretical basis, eg kalaian mabil on learning achievement, or the management, administration or on paper is how to shrink the stomach health. Materi2 Well that's what you put here CHAPTER III METHODS A. Sample thesis The draft study In order to search for valid data, the study compiled by the research design as effectively and efficiently as possible, so that in later writing does not take too long and can run smoothly as expected by the researchers. To obtain data about the role of guidance and counseling, researchers used a questionnaire method that provided students with questions-questions about parent activities related to the child's personality. The data were obtained using a questionnaire and then tabulated and placed in a table format by using the formula percentage (%) which was then followed by some analysis of the results of the questionnaire data that has been achieved. But before the research activities carried out, then first perform the following steps: 1) Preparation In an activity, preparations are elements that are very important. So also in research activities, preparation is the element that needs to be calculated with good cause that will either facilitate the course of the study. In connection with the title and the formulation of the problem mentioned in the previous chapter, the preparation in conducting this study are as follows: Example thesis a) Formulate a plan In this plan the author sets out some things like the following. 1) Title of research 2) The reason the study 3) Problems of research 4) The research objective 5) Object of the study 6) The method b) Permission to conduct research with a letter of introduction from Mr. Dean of the Faculty of Tarbiyah Islamic Institute Nurul Jadid Paiton Probolinggo, the author applied for permission to junior secondary school head Wali Songo Village District Laweyan Sumberasih Probolinggo. Thus the authors have obtained permission to conduct to conduct research in the area. c) Prepare a data collection tool that measures relating to older people, namely the set of instruments and questionnaires and interviews. 2) Implementation Once the preparation is considered mature, the next step was to conduct research. In the implementation phase of this research to collect the necessary data by using several methods, among others: * Interviews * Questionnaires * Documentation * Completion Upon completion of research activities, the authors began to formulate the next steps, namely: * Develop a framework of research reports by tabulating and analyzing data that has been obtained, which were consulted to Supervisor in the hope if there are things that need to be revised, will be conducted so as to obtain an optimal result. * Reports that have been completed and will be at stake in front of the Board of Examiners, and the results of this study duplicated and delivered to the parties concerned. B. Population and Study Sample 1. Population Population by Hadi Sutrisno are all individuals for whom the realities that obtained from samples that would be generalizable. While understanding the sample is part of the investigated individuals' (1994:70). Meanwhile, according to T. Raka Joni "is the entire population of individuals who are, who ever and there may be real which is the target of an investigation on" (t.th.: 13). Starting from the definition above, then in this study, the population is all students MTs. Wali Songo Village District Lawean Sumberasih Probolinggo totaling 98 people. 2. Study Sample definition of the sample, Suharsimi Arikunto states that, "The sample is partially or representative of the population under study" (1997:177). Furthermore Suharsimi states that: "For just ancer-ancer then when the subject is less than 100 over 100 better taken all, so the research is the study population, then if the subject is large can be taken between 10-15% or 20-25% or more depending on at least from: Example of a thesis. The ability of researchers looked at in terms of time, effort and funds. 2. Observation of a narrow land area of each subject, because it concerns the extent of the data. 3. The extent of risk borne by the researchers, for researchers who are at greater risk, the result will be greater "(1992:107) Based on the definition above, then in this study took a sample of students starting grade I to grade III. The number of students that writers make the sample are as follows: Class I Class II amounted to 15 students totaling 15 students numbered 10 students Class III Thus the number of samples in this study as many as 40 students. The sampling techniques (sampling) according to Saifuddin Azwar there are several kinds: 1. Probability is a probability sample samples sampling technique in which each element, the element or member of the population has an equal chance to be selected into the sample. Some ways of probability sampling techniques are as follows: * a simple random sampling (simple random sampling) is the process of sampling of the population has an equal chance to be drawn into the sample. * Sampling stratified (stratified random sampling) is a sampling process in which the state is not the same population (heterogeneous) * Sampling groups (cluster sampling) is a sampling process in which the state population is not known with certainty. * Sampling systematic (systematic random sampling) is a sampling process in which the elements or just the first member selected from a random sample, while the subsequent members are systematically selected based on a certain way. 2. Non-probability samples of non-probability sample is a sampling process in which every member of the population have the same opportunity to be selected into the sample. Various kinds of non-probability sampling technique as follows: * Sampling by chance (accidental sampling) is sampling by taking or anyone who happened to be there. * Sampling intentional (purposive sampling) the sampling process on the basis of the consideration required by the researcher in his research. (1998:87-89) Based on the theory of sampling conducted by the researchers is to use non-probability sampling technique by intentionally sampling. Example thesis C. Data Collection Techniques To obtain the data corresponding to what is expected, so the data obtained it is completely valid, then in any research first must determine what methods will be used to receive and collect them. Because the method is the key to success in a study. The method used in collecting data in this study are as follows: 1. Methods Questionnaire questionnaire method can be performed in the presence of a number of written questions used to obtain information from respondents in terms of reports about his personal or other matters that he knew. (Arikunto, 1993:188) In this case the source data is 40 students were given questionnaires to obtain data on the implementation of guidance and counseling in junior secondary school Wali Songo Village District Lawean Sumberasih Probolinggo. 2. Documentation methods documentation method is to find data about things such as notes or variable transcripts, agendas, and so on. (Arikunto, 1993:198) In this study researchers used a method of documentation is to obtain data on the MTs. Wali Songo especially data on the number of students of students, educators and state employees, the organizational structure of institutions, facilities and infrastructure that exist at the agency. D. Method of Data Analysis After holding a series of activities (research) by using some of the above methods, the data collected was analyzed using descriptive techniques. This technique is used to analyze qualitative data or data that can not be realized with the numbers. The quantitative data will be analyzed by using percentages, which will use the following formula:

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B. Rumusan Masalah Perumusan masalah merupakan hal yang sangat penting di dalam kegiatan penelitian, sebab masalah merupakan obyek yang akan diteliti dan dicari jalan keluarnya melalui penelitian. Pernyataan ini relevan dengan yang diungkapkan oleh Suharsimi Arikunto dalam bukunya Prosedur Penelitian suatu Pendekatan mengatakan bahwa : “Masalah mesti merupakan bagian kebutuhan seseorang untuk dipecahkan, orang ingin mengadakan penelitian karena ia ingin mendapatkan pemecahan dari masalah yang dihadapi.” (Surahmad, 1989:22) Dari pendapat di atas dapat disimpulkan bahwa rumusan masalah sudah menjadi suatu “kebutuhan” dalam sebuah penelitian, karena tanpa rumusan masalah alur dan sistematika penelitian tidak akan menemukan jawaban dari masalah yang sedang diteliti. Sedangkan Sanapiah Faisal dalam Metodologi Penelitian Pendidikan mengemukakan : Dalam penelitian perlu ditegaskan dan dirumuskan masalah yang akan diteliti. Penegasan masalah tersebut sekaligus menggambarkan fokus arah yang diikuti nantinya di dalam proses suatu penelitian. Rumusan masalah cukup terbatas lingkupnya sehingga memungkinkan penarikan kesimpulan yang tegas. (Sudiyono, 1992:61) Dari definisi tersebut di atas, dapat disimpulkan bahwa sesuatu yang bersifat problematik akan memerlukan pemecahan. Dalam penelitian kita dituntut untuk mencari pemecahan masalah tersebut. Bertitik tolak dari latar belakang yang telah dipaparkan di atas, maka permasalahan yang dapat dirumuskan adalah : 1. Adakah peranan bimbingan dan penyuluhan dalam menanggulangi kesulitan belajar siswa di Madrasah Tsanawiyah Wali Songo Desa Laweyan Kecamatan Sumberasih Kabupaten Probolinggo. 2. Bagaimana peranan bimbingan dan penyuluhan dalam menanggulangi kesulitan belajar siswa di Madrasah Tsanawiyah Wali Songo Desa Laweyan Kecamatan Sumberasih Kabupaten Probolinggo. C. Tujuan Penelitian Tujuan penelitian di dalam karya ilmiah merupakan target yang hendak dicapai melalui serangkaian aktivitas penelitian, karena segala yang diusahakan pasti mempunyai tujuan tertentu yang sesuai dengan permasalahannya. Tujuan dalam penelitian akan sangat membantu terhadap pencapaian hasil yang optimal dan dapat memberikan arah terhadap kegiatan yang dijalankan dalam penelitian itu. Sesuai dengan persepsi tersebut dan berpijakpada rumusan masalah yang telah disebutkan, maka penelitian ini mempunyai tujuan : 1. Ingin mengetahui ada tidaknya peranan bimbingan dan penyuluhan dalam menanggulangi kesulitan belajar siswa di Madrasah Tsanawiyah Wali Songo Desa Laweyan Kecamatan Sumberasih Kabupaten Probolinggo. 2. Ingin mengetahui bagaimana peranan bimbingan dan penyuluhan dalam menanggulangi kesulitan belajar siswa dengan bimbingan di Madrasah Tsanawiyah Wali Songo Desa Laweyan Kecamatan Sumberasih Kabupaten Probolinggo. D. Kegunaan Penelitian Hasil penelitian ini diharapkan dapat bermanfaat bagi semua pihak yang terkait utamanya bagi pihak-pihak berikut ini : 1. Bagi Guru Sebagai sarana untuk mengambil inisiatif dalam rangka penyempurnaan program proses belajar mengajar sehingga antara guru sebagai pendidik di sekolah dan siswa sebagai pihak yang perlu dididik bisa saling melengkapi dan bekerja sama dengan baik, sehingga prestasi belajar siswa akan selalu meningkat. 2. Bagi Instansi Sebagai bahan masukan dalam mengambil kebijaksanaan yang tepat dan memberikan/menambah sarana dan prasarana dalam rangka memberikan gairah dalam proses belajar mengajar guna meningkatkan mutu dan prestasi belajar siswa, sekaligus meningkatkan mutu pendidikan. 3. Bagi Penulis Sebagai bahan latihan dalam penulisan karya ilmiah, sekaligus sebagai tambahan informasi mengenai bimbingan dan penyuluhan yang ada di lembaga madrasah khususnya di Madrasah Tsanawiyah Wali Songo Desa Lawean Kecamatan Sumberasih Kabupaten Probolinggo. E. Hipotesis Penelitian Menurut Suharsimi Arikunto dalam buku Prosedur Penelitian suatu Pendekatan Praktek, menyatakan bahwa “Hipotesis dapat diartikan sebagai suatu jawaban yang bersifat sementara terhadap permasalahan penelitian, sampai terbukti melalui data yang terkumpul” (1997:67). Adapun Hipotesis dalam penelitian ini adalah sebagai berikut : 1. Hipotesis Kerja (Ha) “Ada peranan bimbingan dan penyuluhan dalam menanggulangi kesulitan belajar siswa di Madrasah Tsanawiyah Wali Songo Dewa Laweyan Kecamatan Sumberasih Kabupaten Probolinggo”. 2. Hipotesis Nihil (Ho) “Tidak ada peranan bimbingan dan penyuluhan dalam menanggulangi kesulitan belajar siswa di Madrasah Tsanawiyah Wali Songo Dewa Laweyan Kecamatan Sumberasih Kabupaten Probolinggo”. Contoh skripsi F. Ruang Lingkup dan Keterbatasan Penelitian Penelitian tentang peranan bimbingan dan penyuluhan dalam menanggulangi kesulitan belajar siswa di Madrasah Tsanawiyah Wali Songo Desa Laweyan Kecamatan Sumberasih Kabupaten Probolinggo ini mempunyai jangkauan yang sangat luas. Namun karena adanya keterbatasan waktu, tenaga, dana, dan kemampuan yang dimiliki penulis, maka ruang lingkup penelitian dibatasi pada masalah sebagai berikut ini : 1. Karakteristik lokasi penelitian, yakni mengenai gambaran umum tentang lokasi tersebut yang meliputi sejarah berdirinya madrasah, struktur organisasi, dan data-data lain yang diperlukan dalam penelitian. 2. Bentuk-bentuk bimbingan dan penyulihan yang diberikan oleh guru kepada siswa baik secara prefentif maupun kuratif dalam menanggulangi kesulitan belajar siswa. 3. Data tentang hasil perolehan skor dari angket yang telah disebarkan untuk mengetahui ada tidaknya peranan bimbingan dan penyuluhan dalam menanggulangi kesulitan belajar siswa di Madrasah Tsanawiyah Wali Songo Desa Laweyan Kecamatan Sumberasih Kabupaten Probolinggo. G. Definisi Operasional Definisi operasional dalam penyusunan skripsi ini dimaksudkan untuk menghindari perbedaan interpretasi makna terhadap hal-hal yang bersifat esensial yang dapat menimbulkan kerancuan dalam mengartikan judul, maksud dari penelitian, disamping itu juga sebagai penjelas secara redaksional agar mudah dipahami dan diterima oleh akal sehingga tidak terjadi dikotomi antara judul dengan pembahasan dalam skripsi ini. Definisi operasional ini merupakan suatu bentuk kerangka pembahasan yang lebih mengarah dan relevan dengan permasalahan yang ada hubungannya dengan penelitian. Sesuai dengan judul “Peranan Bimbingan dan Penyuluhan dalam Menanggulangi Kesulitan Belajar Siswa”, maka batasan pengertian di atas meliputi : a. Peranan Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan memberikan arti peranan, “Tindakan yang dilakukan oleh seseorang dalam suatu peristiwa” (Depdikbud, 1991:751). Sedangkan menurut WJS. Poerwadarminto dalam Kamus Umum Bahasa Indonesia mengartikan peranan adalah, “Sesuau yang menjadi bagian atau yang memegang pimpinan yang terutama (dalam terjadinya suatu hal atau peristiwa)” (Poerwadarminto, 1997:735). Berdasakan pendapat para ahli di atas, dapat penulis simpulkan bahwa peranan adalah segala sesuatu yang bisa mengakibatkan terjadinya suatu peristiwa yang lain baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung. b. Bimbingan dan penyuluhan Bimbingan dan penyuluhan yang dalam bahasa Inggrisnya disebut Guidance and Couseling merupakan rangkaian dua kata yang jika kata bimbingan disebut biasanya selalu diikuti oleh kata penyuluhan. Bimo Walgito memberikan definisi bimbingan sebagai berikut : Bimbingan adalah merupakan tuntunan, bantuan dan pertolongan yang diberikan pada individu atau sekumpulan individu-individu dalam menghindari atau mengatasi kesulitan-kesulitan di dalam hidupnya agar supaya individu atau sekumpulan individu itu dapat mencapai kesejahteraan hidupnya. (Mapiere, 1997:735). Dari pendapat tersebut dapat diketahui bahwa bimbingan merupakan bantuan yang diberikan kepada setiap individu yang mengalami kesulitan hidup. Sesuai dengan potennsi yang ada sehingga mereka bisa hidup sejahtera dan damai. Dalam aktivitas belajar, siswa membutuhkan bimbingan dalam menghadapi kesulitan belajarnya. Sedangkan pengertian penyuluhan menurut Bimo Walgito adalah : Penyuluhan adalah bantuan yang diberikan kepada individu dalam memecahkan masalah kehidupannya dengan wawancara, dengan cara yang sesuai dengan keadaan individu yang dihadapi untuk mencapai kesejahteraan hidupnya. (Mapiere, 1997:04) Dari dua pengertian tersebut, ada persamaan dan ada perbedaannya. Persamaannya adalah keduanya merupakan suatu bantuan bagi individu-individu dalam menghadapi problem hidupnya. Sedangkan perbedaannya, bimbingan lebih luas dari penyuluhan, bimbingan lebih menitik-beratkan pada segi-segi kuratif. Tetapi walaupun berbeda, penggunaan bimbingan selalu diikuti oleh kata penyuluhan. c. Menanggulangi kesulitan belajar Menanggulangi menurut Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia antara lain diartikan “Mengatasi” (Depdikbud, 1991:1005). Sedangkan Kesulitan berarti “Keadan yang sulit; sesuatu yang sulit, kesukaran. (Depdikbud, 1991: 971). Sedangkan belajar menurut Gagne (1984) adalah sebagaimana dikutip oleh Ratna Wilis Dahan dalam bukunya yang berjudul Teori-teori Belajar, memberikan definisi belajar yaitu : “suatu proses dimana organisme berubah perilakunya sebagai akibat pengalaman”. (Dahan, 1989:11). Belajar adalah segenap rangkaian kegiatan yang dilakukan secara sadar oleh seseorang yang mengakibatkan perubahan pengetahuan dan kemahiran yang sedikit banyak permanen. (Dahan, 1989:06). Dari dua pengertian di atas dapat diketahui bahwa yang dimaksud menanggulangi kesulitan belajar adalah upaya untuk mengatasi keadaan yang terasa sulit sewaktu individu melakukan kegiatan belajar. Contoh skripsi H. Sistematika Pembahasan Sistematika pembahasan merupakan rangkuman sementara dari sisi skripsi, yakni suatu gambaran tentang isi skripsi secara keseluruhan dan dari sistematika itulah dapat dijadikan satu arahan bagi pembaca untuk menelaahnya. Secara berurutan dalam sistematika ini adalah sebagai berikut : BAB I PENDAHULUAN Dalam bab pendahuluan ini dikemukakan tentang latar belakang masalah, rumusan masalah, tujuan penelitian, kegunaan penelitian, hipotesis penelitian, ruang lingkup dan keterbatasan penelitian, definisi operasional dan sistematika pembahasan. BAB II KAJIAN PUSTAKA Dalam bab kajian pustaka ini dikemukakan tentang pondok pesantren, akhlaq, serta kajian tentang peranan pondok pesantren dalam pembinaan akhlaq masyarakat. BAB III METODE PENELITIAN Dalam bab ini akan dikemukakan tentang rancangan penelitian, populasi dan sampel penelitian, instrumen penelitian, dan teknik pengumpulan data. BAB IV HASIL PENELITIAN Dalam bab hasil penelitian akan dipaparkan tentang penyajian data yang berkaitan dengan hasil yang didapat di lapangan penelitian, serta analisis. BAB V KESIMPULAN DAN SARAN Dalam bab terakhir ini akan disajikan tentang kesimpulan sebagai hasil dari penelitian dan dilanjutkan dengan saran-saran yang sekiranya dapat dijadikan bahan pemikiran bagi yang berkepentingan. BAB II Kajian Pustaka Pada Bab II disini diisi dengan kajian pustaka atau matere, landasan teori skripsi, misal kalaian mabil tentang prestasi belajar, atau manajemen, administrasi atau tentang Makalah kesehatan yaitu cara mengecilkan perut. Nah materi2 itulah yang akan kalian cantumkan disini BAB III METODE PENELITIAN Contoh skripsi A. Rancangan Penelitian Dalam rangka mencari data yang valid, maka penelitian ini disusun dengan rancangan penelitian seefektif dan seefisien mungkin, agar dalam penulisannya nanti tidak memakan waktu yang terlalu lama dan dapat berjalan dengan lancar sesuai dengan yang diharapkan oleh peneliti. Untuk mendapatkan data tentang peranan bimbingan dan penyuluhan, peneliti menggunakan metode angket yang diberikan siswa yang berisi pertanyaan-pertanyaan sekitar aktifitas orang tua yang berhubungan dengan kepribadian anak. Data yang telah diperoleh dengan menggunakan angket kemudian ditabulasikan dan diletakkan dalam format tabel dengan menggunakan rumus prosentase (%) yang kemudian disusul dengan beberapa analisis hasil dari data angket yang telah dicapai. Namun sebelum kegiatan penelitian dilaksanakan, maka terlebih dahulu melaksanakan langkah-langkah sebagai berikut : 1) Persiapan Dalam suatu kegiatan, persiapan merupakan unsur-unsur yang sangat penting. Begitu juga dalam kegiatan penelitian, persiapan merupakan unsur yang perlu diperhitungkan dengan baik sebab yang baik akan memperlancar jalannya penelitian. Sehubungan dengan judul dan rumusan masalah yang telah disebutkan pada bab terdahulu, maka persiapan dalam melaksanakan penelitian ini adalah sebagai berikut : Contoh skripsi a) Menyusun rencana Dalam menyusun rencana ini penulis menetapkan beberapa hal seperti berikut ini. 1) Judul penelitian 2) Alasan penelitian 3) Problema penelitian 4) Tujuan penelitian 5) Obyek penelitian 6) Metode yang dipergunakan b) Ijin melaksanakan penelitian Dengan surat pengantar dari Bapak Dekan Fakultas Tarbiyah Institut Agama Islam Nurul Jadid Paiton Probolinggo, penulis dimohonkan ijin ke Kepala Madrasah Tsanawiyah Wali Songo Desa Laweyan Kecamatan Sumberasih Kabupaten Probolinggo. Dengan demikian penulis telah mendapatkan ijin untuk mengadakan untuk melakukan penelitian di tempat tersebut. c) Mempersiapkan alat pengumpul data yang berhubungan dengan langkah-langkah orang tua, yakni menyusun instrumen dan angket dan wawancara. 2) Pelaksanaan Setelah persiapan dianggap matang, maka tahap selanjutnya adalah melaksanakan penelitian. Dalam pelaksanaan tahap ini peneliti mengumpulkan data-data yang diperlukan dengan menggunakan beberapa metode, antara lain : * Wawancara * Angket * Dokumentasi * Penyelesaian Setelah kegiatan penelitian selesai, penulis mulai menyusun langkah-langkah berikutnya, yaitu : * Menyusun kerangka laporan hasil penelitian dengan mentabulasikan dan menganalisis data yang telah diperoleh, yang kemudian dikonsultasikan kepada Dosen Pembimbing dengan harapan apabila ada hal-hal yang perlu direvisi, akan segera dilakukan sehingga memperoleh suatu hasil yang optimal. * Laporan yang sudah selesai kemudian akan dipertaruhkan di depan Dewan Penguji, kemudian hasil penelitian ini digandakan dan disampaikan kepada pihak-pihak yang terkait. B. Populasi dan Sampel Penelitian 1. Populasi Populasi menurut Sutrisno Hadi adalah semua individu untuk siapa kenyataan-kenyataan yang diperoleh dari sampel yang hendak digeneralisasikan. Sedangkan pengertian sampel adalah sebagian individu yang diselidiki” (1994:70). Sedangkan menurut T. Raka Joni “Populasi adalah keseluruhan individu yang ada, yang pernah dan mungkin ada yang merupakan sasaran yang sesungguhnya dari pada suatu penyelidikan” (t.th.:13). Bertolak dari pengertian di atas, maka dalam penelitian ini yang menjadi populasi adalah seluruh siswa MTs. Wali Songo Desa Lawean Kecamatan Sumberasih Kabupaten Probolinggo yang berjumlah 98 orang. 2. Sampel Penelitian Pengertian mengenai sampel, Suharsimi Arikunto menyatakan bahwa, “Sampel adalah sebagian atau wakil populasi yang diteliti” (1997:177). Selanjutnya Suharsimi menyatakan bahwa : “Untuk sekedar ancer-ancer maka apabila subyeknya kurang dari 100 lebih 100 lebih baik diambil semua, sehingga penelitiannya merupakan penelitian populasi, selanjutnya jika subyeknya besar dapat diambil antara 10-15% atau 20-25% atau lebih tergantung setidaknya dari : Contoh skripsi 1. Kemampuan peneliti melihat dari segi waktu, tenaga dan dana. 2. Sempit luasnya wilayah pengamatan dari setiap subyek, karena hal ini menyangkut banyak sedikitnya data. 3. Besar kecilnya resiko yang ditanggung oleh peneliti, untuk peneliti yang beresiko besar, hasilnya akan lebih besar” (1992:107) Berdasarkan pengertian di atas, maka dalam penelitian ini mengambil sampel siswa mulai kelas I sampai dengan kelas III. Adapun jumlah siswa yang penulis jadikan sampel adalah sebagai berikut : Kelas I berjumlah 15 siswa Kelas II berjumlah 15 siswa Kelas III berjumlah 10 siswa Dengan demikian jumlah sampel dalam penelitian ini sebanyak 40 siswa. Adapun Teknik penarikan sampel (sampling) menurut Saifuddin Azwar ada beberapa macam yaitu : 1. Sampel probabilitas Sampel probabilitas adalah teknik penarikan sampel di mana setiap unsur, elemen atau anggota populasi mempunyai peluang yang sama untuk dipilih menjadi sampel. Beberapa cara teknik penarikan sampel probabilitas adalah sebagai berikut : * Sampling acak sederhana (simple random sampling) adalah proses penarikan sampel dari populasi memiliki peluang yang sama untuk ditarik menjadi sampel. * Sampling berstrata (stratified random sampling) adalah proses penarikan sampel dimana keadaan populasi tidak sama (heterogen) * Sampling berkelompok (cluster sampling) adalah proses pengambilan sampel dimana keadaan populasi tidak diketahui secara pasti. * Sampling sistematis (systematic random sampling) adalah proses pengambilan sampel di mana unsur atau anggota pertama saja dari sampel dipilih acak, sedangkan anggota-anggota berikutnya dipilih secara sistematis berdasarkan cara tertentu. 2. Sampel Non Probabilitas Sampel non probabilitas adalah proses penarikan sampel di mana setiap anggota populasi mendapat kesempatan yang sama untuk dipilih menjadi sampel. Macam-macam teknik penarikan sampel non probabilitas sebagai berikut : * Sampling secara kebetulan (accidental sampling) adalah pengambilan sampel dengan cara mengambil siapa saja yang ada atau kebetulan ada. * Sampling secara sengaja (purposive sampling) adalah proses penarikan sampel atas dasar pertimbangan yang dibutuhkan oleh peneliti dalam penelitiannya. (1998:87-89) Berdasarkan teori di atas maka penarikan sampel yang dilakukan oleh peneliti adalah menggunakan teknik penarikan sampel non probabilitas dengan cara sampling secara sengaja. Contoh skripsi C. Teknik Pengumpulan Data Untuk memperoleh data yang sesuai dengan apa yang diharapkan, sehingga data yang diperoleh itu benar-benar valid, maka dalam setiap penelitian terlebih dahulu harus menentukan metode apa yang akan dipakai untuk mendapatkan serta mengumpulkannya. Sebab metode merupakan kunci keberhasilan dalam suatu penelitian. Adapun metode yang digunakan dalam pengumpulan data pada penelitian ini adalah sebagai berikut : 1. Metode Angket Metode angket dapat dilakukan dengan adanya sejumlah pertanyaan yang tertulis yang digunakan untuk memperoleh informasi dari responden dalam arti laporan tentang pribadinya atau hal-hal yang ia ketahui. (Arikunto, 1993:188) Dalam hal ini sumber data yang diberi angket adalah 40 siswa untuk memperoleh data mengenai pelaksanaan bimbingan dan penyuluhan di Madrasah Tsanawiyah Wali Songo Desa Lawean Kecamatan Sumberasih Kabupaten Probolinggo. 2. Metode Dokumentasi Metode dokumentasi adalah mencari data mengenai hal-hal atau variabel yang berupa catatan transkrip, agenda dan sebagainya. (Arikunto, 1993:198) Dalam penelitian ini peneliti menggunakan metode dokumentasi adalah untuk memperoleh data tentang MTs. Wali Songo terutama data mengenai jumlah siswa siswa, keadaan tenaga pendidik dan karyawan, struktur organisasi lembaga, serta sarana dan prasarana yang ada di lembaga tersebut. D. Metode Analisis Data Setelah mengadakan serangkaian kegiatan (penelitian) dengan menggunakan beberapa metode di atas, maka data-data yang terkumpul dianalisa dengan menggunakan teknik deskriptif. Teknik ini dipergunakan untuk menganalisa data yang bersifat kualitatif atau data yang tidak dapat direalisasikan dengan angka. Adapun data yang bersifat kuantitatif akan dianalisa dengan menggunakan teknik prosentase, dimana akan digunakan rumus sebagai berikut :

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pendahuluan

Applying Strategy to Enhance Capabilities DRTA Student Reading Comprehension

Reading as one of the basic language skills to be mastered dipembelajaran language. Usually taught in conjunction with three other language skills. As one of language skills, reading gets more attention than any other language skills. There is a high priority. However, many students do not have enough skills in reading and their reading achievement is low.
This study is a Class Action Research and aims to improve students' reading comprehension skills through DRTA (Directed Reading Thinking Activity). This strategy was chosen because it helps develop critical reading skills and encourage active reading. In addition, this strategy has proven, through many studies, have been able to increase reading comprehension achievement and student involvement in the learning process.
The research was conducted in two cycles with reference to the procedures of action research, planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. Each cycle in the study consisted of two meetings for the implementation strategy and a meeting for the test. The research data was collected through several instruments following; observation sheet, a record sheet, questionnaire, and reading comprehension tests.
The results of this study indicate the exact model of DRTA strategies in teaching reading in the MAN Kandangan comprises the following steps: ditahap read the beginning: (1) grouping of students, (2) explain the purpose of the lesson, (3) mengiring students on the topic by giving a few questions and show images, (4) asks the students predict the topic reading of images and titles are given, (5) introduce new vocabulary. Ditahap integrated silent reading: (1) gives the question, (2) asked students to predict reading and then writing it in a sheet, (3) ask students to share with the group. In this case, some predictions of students' written on the board, (4) assign one student to read out followed by all students in silent reading, (5) asked to record information, (6) asks students to discuss with the group. In the final stages of reading: (1) commissioned to examine and prove their predictions, (2) request to find evidence to support the prediction, (3) discuss student predictions, (4) asks the students to do the work, (5) discuss students' responses.
Furthermore, the results of this study explained that the strategy DRTA improve students' reading comprehension. This increase can be seen from the increase in reading comprehension scores of students who can achieve the target value (75 in the range 0 to 100), ie on the initial test, there are only 8 students or 24% of the 33 students who can achieve the target value. In the first cycle, there are 17 students or 48% of the 33 students who can achieve the target value. In the second cycle, there are 22 students or 67% out of 33 students who can achieve the target value. In addition, this invention describes that the strategy of improving student success DRTA actively involved in class.
Based on these results, it can be concluded that the strategy DRTA not only successful in improving students' reading comprehension but also can improve student engagement in the process pembelajara. Therefore, some suggestions are made. First, teachers of English can apply DRTA strategy in learning to read. They must use reading text that has not been read by students and they also have a positive, supportive, and encouraging. Second, the researchers then suggested they do the same research strategy using DRTA on other language skills and on other types of text such as Expository, reports, and recount.





Directed Reading-Thinking Activity
A. The Nature of Writing
Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) is a reading comprehension strategy that is used in each of the three stages of reading (pre-reading, during reading, and post-reading). It emphasizes prediction (thinking ahead), verification (confirmation), and reading with a purpose.
DRTA helps students realize that prediction and verification of predictions are essential parts of the reading process. Students learn that by reading with a purpose, they can more easily focus their predictions.
Good readers automatically predict and confirm what will or will not happen in the text and merge their knowledge and ideas with the author’s. Poor readers do not make predictions or verifications as they read. DRTA helps readers learn to make predictions before they read and verify those predictions as they read.
Use DRTA with students who have difficulty comprehending text or who need help understanding that reading is an interactive process between the author and the reader. Teach DRTA in-group or one-on-one situations. After working through the strategy with the students (guided practice), encourage them to use it independently.
Below are the guidelines for helping students apply DRTA in each of the three stages of reading.
Pre-Reading
1. Survey the text with the students, looking for clues about the content – clues such as titles, section headings, key words, illustrations.
2. Help the students make predictions about the text’s content.
3. Have students write their predictions down on a Prediction Verification Checklist, as you write them on the board or overhead transparency.
4. Make sure the students understand how to use the checklist to classify their predictions as: proved, disproved, partially right/wrong, requires revision, not mentioned, not enough information.
5. Help the students establish a purpose for reading by directing them to read the text to determine whether it proves or disproves their predictions.
During Reading
1. Have the students read the text, silently or aloud, individually or in groups, to verify their predictions.
2. Instruct the students to place a check mark under the appropriate category on the Prediction Verification Checklist as they read the text.
Post-Reading
1. Have the students compare their predictions with the actual content of the text.
2. Ask the students to analyze their checklist and determine how well they predicted the content of the text.
3. Verify that the students have learned the DRTA strategy by having them answer the following metacognitive questions:
• What is the name of the strategy you learned?
• How does the strategy help you understand what you read?
• What should you do before you read? While you read? After you read?
Why Is It Important?
Most students require explicit instruction in reading comprehension strategies (Tierney 1982).
Good readers make predictions and verify or refute them as they read. They also make adjustments to what they think will come next based on the text. DR-TA is a strategy that explicitly teaches students to good reading habits.
How Can You Make It Happen?
Before using this strategy with students, create a classroom climate in which students are free to state their ideas and share their thinking. This is especially necessary for students who are not risk-takers. Because these students want to be correct the first time they answer a question, DR-TA can be challenging for them. DR-TA asks students to predict the unknown in a text, and at times students will be incorrect. For some students, you may want to consider having them write their predictions in a journal rather than posting them on an overhead transparency or the chalkboard. Encourage students not to be intimidated by taking a risk and not to feel pressure to state correct predictions.
As an introductory lesson to DR-TA, select a reading passage, and determine several appropriate stopping points within it for students to make, verify, or modify predictions. Use sticky notes to mark students' copies of the text in advance to prevent students from reading too far ahead. Be cautious not to interrupt the flow of the text too many times, as this will adversely affect comprehension.
When you use this strategy, guide and stimulate students' thinking through the use of questions. Pose open-ended questions, and encourage students to state their predictions, valuing and supporting all ideas. Wait a few seconds after asking a question, to allow students to process the information and form a prediction.
At the beginning of the lesson, write the title of the book or passage on an overhead transparency or the chalkboard. Ask students, "Given this title, what do you think the passage will be about?" Accept and record all predictions on the transparency or chalkboard. Ask students, "Why do you think that?" to encourage them to justify their responses and activate prior knowledge.
Preview the illustrations and/or headings of the passage. Ask students to revise their predictions based on this new information. Make changes to the predictions on the transparency or chalkboard.
Have students read silently. Stop them after the first section of the passage, and lead a class discussion to verify or modify predictions. Ask students to cite the text which caused them to confirm or change a prediction. Ask students, "What in the passage makes you think that? Can you prove it?" Make changes to the predictions on the transparency or chalkboard.
Repeat this process until students have read each section of the passage. Verify or modify the predictions made at the beginning of the lesson.
As students become more comfortable with this process, have each student write predictions in alearning log or on a piece of paper. Then, in small groups, students can discuss their predictions and share their thinking processes. Next ask students to write summary statements about how their predictions compared to the passage.
Using DR-TA in a heterogeneous group can be a challenge due to the range of reading levels that may be present. In this case, you may want to select two passages on the same topic – one higher-level and one lower-level. Divide the class into groups to read the text that is appropriate for them. These groups should share information as described in the previous parargraph.
If your students are not yet readers, the strategy is referred to as Directed Listening-Thinking Activity (DL-TA) and proceeds the same way, except you read the text to the class. To use DL-TA for challenged readers, have a taped version of the passage available. Listening to text read aloud provides challenged readers with opportunities to attend to and comprehend material that they would be unable to read for themselves (Gillet and Temple 1994).

Senin, 05 Desember 2011

proposal for reseach

1. Background of the study
Reading as an interactive process requiring a variety of mental operations must be performed simultaneously or very close in time. When students read, they tend to proceed from the processing of text in a smaller unit conceptual language for the larger units (Perfetti, 1985).
for that this study will discuss the extent to read in school is concerned, the most important thing is for you to realize the different strategies available to you and to use that right in the right situation. This is a bad habit to start reading an academic text by going right to the beginning and continue to read each sentence one by one, searching for each word you do not know in the dictionary. First you need to ensure that the text is something that you want to read! Imagine you want to move to a new home, or you want to buy a new car and you go to see this new house / car to see if you want it. What's the first thing you do? Well, I think the first thing you do is look outside to see if it is what you want. Do you stand back and look from different angles to see if it meets your needs? If it looks OK, then you go inside and begin to investigate carefully. Similarly, academic texts you need to make sure that it is what you want before you go in it - that is, before you start reading it carefully. The 'stand back and look from different angles' is important. This is when you see the title, author, when written (what we sometimes call 'survey' text) and you skim and scan. When you scan the text you are looking through it quickly to find key words or information. After scanning the text you need to know if it has reference to things you want to know. Skimming is a quick look through the text to get a general impression of what it is. You can often do this by just reading the titles and sub-header text, and the first sentence of each paragraph. You can do all this type of reading without using a dictionary! Remember the house - you have not stepped in it yet, you still see from the outside. Survey the text (title, author, date, etc.) and skimming and scanning an academic skills essential reading for you and for native English speakers as well that also need to develop these skills. The trick is to have the confidence to jump through the text's ignore the whole bit. It may seem strange for you to do this. It may even feel like you're cheating! But it is an important element to be ACTIVE readers.
Chapter two
Review of Literature
Skimming and scanning are two techniques that can help readers quickly gain information from a book, magazine, newspaper or website without having to read every word. When used well, both skimming and scanning can save readers time and allow them to study more efficiently.
Part One: Skimming
Skimming
• Readers skim a text when they look it over quickly to get a general idea of the subject-matter. The reader is not interested in all the detail, getting the gist is enough. Skimmers run their eye down the page or screen looking for pointers that sum up the contents. Subheadings or bullet points attract their attention, as do the introductory phrases of paragraphs and the concluding ones. In longer texts, skimmers check the contents lists, the opening and closing paragraphs of chapters, and any introductions, conclusions or summaries.
Skimming Advantages
• Skimming is useful when you have to decide if a long piece of writing is worth close study. If a student with an hour to do some research is presented with 10 textbooks and, there won't be time to read them all. It makes sense to swiftly appraise them and choose the most relevant one. Skimming can also be an effective way of quickly reviewing something that has been read previously, so that the reader can recall the most significant parts. The Reading and Study Skills Lab at Anne Arundel Community College, Maryland, estimates skimming can be done at approximately 1,000 words a minute.
Skimming Disadvantages
• Skimming a book, article or webpage only gives the reader a general idea of its contents. Nuances, vital details and caveats are easily missed. This can produce a confused or misleading impression. Skimming works well when dealing with clear subjects that lend themselves to a general overview, such as a chronological description of an event. Skimming is far less effective in making sense of complex discussions or detailed arguments.


Remind students that “skimming” is used to quickly find the main ideas of a text, and that skimming is often done at a speed three to four times faster than normal critical reading speed. Ask: When might you use skimming? In what situations is it useful? Suggest to students that skimming is useful if they have a great deal of material to read in a short amount of time, or to quickly ascertain whether a text (such as the daily newspaper) merits a closer read.

Review the following skimming strategies with students as you write them on the board:

* Read the first and last paragraphs of an article first.
* Notice the titles and headings and subheadings.
* Look at the illustrations, graphs or other visuals on the page.
* Read the captions of the visuals.
* Read the first sentence of each paragraph.

Once the class is clear on the strategies, each student should skim the front page of The New York Times. Next, have a class discussion about the various stories that caught their attention and why.

The Learning Network’s Daily News Quiz invariably takes most of its material from that day’s printed front page of The Times, though it is possible that not every question is from there. Have students go to today’s quiz and see how many questions they can answer based on their skimming. When the class is finished, students should discuss which skimming strategies were most effective, and then report out to the larger group.

Part Two: Scanning
Scanning
• Readers scan a piece of writing when they quickly search it for specific information. For example, a reader might scan a biography of Abraham Lincoln, looking out only for significant dates. The reader would skip over descriptions of Lincoln's upbringing, his struggles and his achievements, stopping only to note the years. Scanners will make use of a book's index and contents page. When running their eye over the text, they will look out for keywords relevant to their search.
Scanning Advantages
• Scanning allows the reader to efficiently gather information, which may be scattered throughout a long piece of writing. It encourages the reader to research in a purposeful way and avoid distractions. According to Anne Arundel Community College's Reading and Study Skills Lab, scanning can be done at approximately 1,500 words a minute, or even more.
Scanning Disadvantages
• Scanning can be monotonous and the technique is not suited for long periods of study, as it is easy to lose concentration. Although scanning is a good way to quickly gather facts, it is not always thorough and a key fact may be overlooked. The context in which a fact appears may affect its meaning. Without reading the surrounding text, it is easy to misinterpret a fact's true significance.


Remind students that scanning is a technique they already employ, such as when looking up a word in a dictionary or trying to find a specific phrase or number on a printed page. When they are scanning, they move their eyes to find specific words, numbers or phrases.

Begin by asking students to identify differences between skimming and scanning. If it is not mentioned, add the idea that scanning often comes before skimming. For example, scanning can be used to determine if a resource has the information you are looking for. Once the resource is scanned, it can then be skimmed for more detail.

When they are scanning, remind students to look for words in boldface or italics, and to pay attention to details like font (typeface), as well as to numbers.

Introduce a scanning game. For this game, choose three to five vocabulary words and write them on the board. Tell students that they will have a contest to find how many times the word appears on the front page of The New York Times.

Another way to play this game, to work on both scanning and vocabulary, is to have students scan the front page of The New York Times for vocabulary words that they do not know, look them up and record the definition, then have each team challenge another team to find their words. (You may wish you use our New York Times Vocabulary Log handout for this activity.)
Scanning Vs. Skimming?
• It is impossible to say which technique is better, as it depends on the reader's purpose. According to the Advanced Institute of Management Research at Cranfield University, in the United Kingdom, skimming and scanning have their place, but only if you "match your reading strategy to the reading purpose." If you need a general idea of a book's subject-matter, choose skimming. If you need to gather specific information from a newspaper article, choose scanning.



Chapter three
Research method
Methodology
This section presents an overview of the methods to used in the study. Areas covered include theresearch design, population, sample and sampling techniques, data collection and analysis.
Research Design
The study will involve the evaluating the role of Internal Auditors in the good governance of theorganisations in the public sector. Consequently, the research will be designed to achieve theobjectives set out by the researcher.
Population
The public sector of Ghana is the biggest employer of Internal Auditors and involves severalorganisations including Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs). The public sector alsoincludes Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies MMDAs). The targeted populationfor the study thus includes the following:
1.Chief Directors and Directors of all MDAs.
2.Coordinating Directors, Finance Officers and other staff of MMDAs.
3.Heads and staff of internal Audit Departments (IADs) of MDAs and MMDAs.
Sampling and Sampling Technique
It obvious from the definition of the population above that a census is not feasible in this study.Accordingly, the researcher will adopt the survey type of research in which a sample from the
target population will be used for the study. In total, a sample of 185 elements will be selectedfrom a targeted population of 300. Details of the sample are as follows:
•15 Chief Directors and 30 Directors of MDAs.
•20 Coordinating Directors, 20 Finance Officers and 20 other staff of MMDAs.
•40 Heads of IDAs and 40 Internal Auditors of MDAs and MMDs.
The study will adopt a multistage stratified sampling method to select elements. First, the population will be divided into MDAs and MMDAs. Next, the MDAs will be grouped intoMinistries, Departments and Agencies and the MMDAs into Metropolitan, Municipal andDistricts. This will ensure a fair representation of each group of institutions since their operations are significantly different.
Data Collection
The focus of study is on attitudes and perception and the importance of primary data cannot beover-emphasised. However, secondary data will also be collected to augment the studies.Before the actual data collect the researcher will collect introductory letter from the School of Business of the University of Cape Coast to the sampled institutions. The initial visit to theselected institutions will therefore be to introduce himself, familiarize himself with thoseinstitutions as well as seek their consent for the study.
Data collection instrument
The researcher will collect data by administering a questionnaire. The questionnaire will usestructured questions, consisting of approximately 20 questions divided into three sections ‘A’, ‘B’, and ‘C’. Section ‘A’ will consist of seven questions seeking to answer the first researchquestion. Section ‘B’will consist of six questions covering the second research questionwhereas Section ‘C’ will consist of questions to test the hypothesis and also answer the thirdresearch question.
Sample investigative questions:
Table 1 below provides samples of the investigativequestions.
Table 1:

Sample Investigative Questions
Section
‘A’
Research Questions

•What account for the lowsupport for Internal Audit by public sector managers?
Investigative Questions
•Are you aware of the role of the Internal Auditor in you organisation?
•How important do you think is the role of theInternal Auditor to your organisation?
•In your view, is the Head of Internal Audit placedappropriately on the organisational chart?

‘B’
•What actions are necessary toget the support of management of internalauditing in the public sector?

Generally, how will you rank the relevance of Internal Audit in your organisation?

•What reasons account for your answer above?
•What do you consider the three most importantactions needed to promote Internal Auditing inthe public sector?

‘C’
•Is there a link between thequality of service the InternalAuditor provides for hisorganisation and the attitudeof managers towards theInternal Audit function?
•What do you consider to be the highest achieve of your internal audit department?
•Would agree to the statement that one’s perception of the Internal Auditor is influenced by how they perceive his role in the company?
•Will your attitude towards Internal Audit bedifferent if they help you achieve your objectives?

Most of the structured questions will be the close-ended type and respondents willbe asked to mark the appropriate box matching the correct answer. Otherquestions, however, will require respondents to give opinions.
Research proposal – SB/MAC/08/0005

Data Analysis
The responses to the structured close-ended questions will be rated in percentages. The percentage of respondents for each alternative will be given and analysed. The data collectedwill be analysed using the computer software known as Statistical Package for Service Solution(SPSS).
Timescale
June – July 2009:
review of literature
August 2009:
draft literature review
September 2009:
agree research strategy with supervisor
October 2009:
agree formal access to organisations for collection of primary data
November 2009:
compile, pilot and review questionnaire
December 2009 - January 2010:
administer questionnaire
February 2010:
final collection of questionnaire
March 2010:
data analysis
April – May 2010:
final writing of project report.
Limitations
The researcher cannot cover all the ten regions of Ghana. The research will therefore be restricted to fiveout of the ten regions.

3.5 instrument of data collection

Data are the “raw materials” with which an evaluation is built. Evaluation data are systematically collected information relevant to your program that will be used in assessing whether your program achieved its objectives. Evaluation data can come from the content of surveys, questionnaires and interviews, tallies from logs, information from scales and self-assessments. Your instruments may produce both qualitative data (e.g., notes from interviews, open-ended questions on a survey, observation notes) and quantitative data (e.g., test scores, statistics, ratings). Data collection itself involves administering instruments as well as gathering and organizing responses and measures for analysis. A well-planned data collection strategy is critical to obtaining reliable, consistent and useful information about the effects of your program.
Steps in Data Collection:

1. Identify Data Types and Sources

2. Identify Who Will Be Involved

3. Set a Schedule

4. Train Your Data Collectors

5. Pilot Test Your Collection Processes

6. Implement Your Data Collection

Selasa, 29 Juni 2010

Makalah Tenses

ABSTRACT

Plural forms of the tenses is time. time in the English language there are four different and each is divided to four parts. so are all of sixteen. tenses is also a verb form when associated with a time of occurrence. This tenses we can not compare with the structure of Indonesian for Indonesian Language is not known the existence of similar structures tenses.

Based on the above facts, the writer tries to make a presentation about the tenses. Tenses are typically used to assist us in using the English language. Tenses in the English language education should always be learned. This is done so that the student or student use of tenses is not wrong in using sentences or speak in the English language. Though for some people in the education community is nothing new tenses, but in some other circles it is not known at all or at least never tried to learn it.

This has led the authors to try to write about tenses, because the writer wanted to know how far the use of tenses in the education community and among the generally known or studied.

PREFACE

We are turning to praise and thanksgiving to God Almighty. Thanks to his gift of love and the author of this paper can be completed properly. In this paper, the authors will explain about the use of tenses and how to understand it.

For the education community lessons on tenses was not a taboo anymore because in the english language education have often studied the use of tenses. however there are still many do not understand the education community in the use of tenses. And for that the author wants to present more about tenses.

Of course there are still many shortcomings and weaknesses in this paper, therefore it is constructive criticism and suggestions from readers are expected to improve in the future.


Sibolga, 2010



Author

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

PREFACE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1. ANTECEDENT

CHAPTER II. SOLUTION

2.1. CONGENIALITY TENSE.

2.2. USE TENSE OF IN THE FORM OF FORMULA.

2.3. FUNCTION TENSE

2.4. TABLE OF ENGLISH TENSES

CHAPTER III. CLOSING

3.1. CONCLUSION

3.2. SUGESTION

REFERENSI

CHAPTER 1

ANTECEDENT

The number of tenses in a language may be controversial, because the term tense is often misconstrued to represent any combination of temporal expression, additional aspects, and even mood. In many texts the term tense may erroneously indicate qualities of uncertainty, frequency, completion, duration, possibility, and even whether information derives from experience or hearsay (the last two are evidentiality). These are in fact not tenses, but traditional nomenclature often classes them as such. In reality, all languages have the same tenses. These are normally divided into three groups-present, past, and future with each being a range within a given scope. For instance, past tenses are those in which the temporal reference of content verb (Time of Assertion, Time of Completion, or Time of Evaluation) occurs before the temporal reference of the utterance itself (Time of Utterance). Past tenses can range from general past, to immediate past, to distant or even very distant past with the only difference between them being the distance on the timeline between the temporal reference points.

Tenses are broadly classified as present, past, or future. Within these broad classifications exist many possible tenses. The difference among these tenses is primarily one of degrees of temporal distance from the Time of Utterance. For instance, within the general category of past tenses, there may further exist immediate past, distant past, far distant past, and remote past with the only difference between them being an increase in distance from the time of utterance along the timeline of that utterance.

Some languages also distinguish not just between past, present, and future, but also nonpast, nonpresent, nonfuture. Each of these latter tenses incorporates two of the former, without specifying which.

CHAPTER II

SOLUTION

2.1. CONGENIALITY TENSE.

Tenses represent a contrast of temporal references along the timeline of an utterance. All languages use the same tenses -- present, past and future, however the expression of these tenses cannot always be translated directly from one language to another. While verbs in all languages have typical forms by which they are identified and indexed in dictionaries, usually the most common present tense or an infinitive, their use in methods for expressing tense varies among languages.

There are languages (such as isolating languages, like Chinese) in which tense is not inflected through verb forms or expressed structurally, but is instead implied through the use of temporal adverbs when needed, and some (such as Japanese) in which temporal information appears via the use of inflected adjectives. In some languages (such as Russian) a single verb may be inflected to indicate aspect and tense together.

Tense in English is grouped into two types -- pure tense and modal tense. Pure tense refers to expressions of present, past, and future tenses in which secondary temporal reference (Time of Assertion, Time of Completion, or Time of Evaluation) is known or perceived to be fully certain. In other words, pure tense refers to expressions in which the attestation is known or thought to be true. Modal tense on the other hand, refers to expressions of present, past, or future in which the certainty of the attestation is not fully certain. In English these forms are expressed with the addition of a modal, modal phrase, or modal adverb.

Only the past tenses in English are expressed by declining the verb. In all raw and perfected aspects, past tense is expressed using the præterite form of the aspectual auxiliary (did, was/were, had) in periphrastic form. In the non-durational aspects (commonly referred to as the Simple Aspect), past tenses may be expressed via a special inflected form in which the aspectual auxiliary 'did' is omitted and the præterite of the content verb is used. This form is only possible in some affirmative statements. In all other types of utterance, the periphrastic form must be employed.

Present tenses are expressed via an unmarked form similar to those of the past tenses, but with the aspectual auxiliary only declined for agreement with person and number (do/does, am/is/are, have/has) in periphrastic forms. As with past tenses inflected forms may be used for certain affirmative statements.

Pure future tenses in English are expressed in the same way as the present tenses but with the addition of a future-marking adverb or time phrase.

Modal Tenses in English are expressed using either the fully undeclined modal form, or a pure tense form with an additional modal adverb or phrase. Modal tense is most often used in English for expressing futurity.

Modal Future refers to any of eight future forms in which the attestation cannot be known to be true due to the uncertain nature of future outcomes. These forms vary by certainty and always express that level of future certainty within the scope of a supporting mood.

2.3. FUNCTION TENSE

1. Present Tense

1. Menyatakan kebiasaan yang dilakukan berulang-ulang

Ex: Ali always goes to school every day

2. Menyatakan kebenaran umum

Ex: the earth is round or the sun rises in the east and set up in the west

3. Mengutip suatu berita, pengumuman, buku, dsb

Ex: in her letter says : my brother studies every day

Cat: biasanya memakai verb: say, advise, warm

4. Digunakan untuk headline Koran, majalah, dsb

Ex: soeharto visits tommy

5. Perbuatan yang direncanakan akan segera dilakukan di waktu dekat

Ex: the train leaves by the at 09.00 train this afternoon

6. Perbuatan atau peristiwa yang terenca atau terjadwal akan segera dilakukan dan terkait dengan aktivitas wisata

Ex: the bus leaves Surabaya at 09.00 PM tomorrow and arrives in jogja at 04.00AM

7. Untuk narasi drama, untuk menggambarkan jalannya urutan cerita dan juga digunakan untuk komentar acara radio, tv, peristiwa olahraga.

Ex: kurniawan takes ball from aroel. He brings the ball to the middle and gives it to ronaldo who is standing free not so far from the penalty area

8. persoalan yang dilakukan, ada atau terjadi saat ini

Ex: Indonesia has more than 27 provinces

I like to watch the Italian soccer game in rcti on Sunday night

9. Situasi atau keadaan yang kita lihat dan ketahui saat ini

Ex: today gasoline is very expensive

10. Keberadaan sesuatu yang kita lihat dan ketahui saat ini

Ex: basakih is the biggest tample in bali

Job opportunity are limited in our country

11. Menyuruh atau melarang suatu pekerjaan

Ex: turn off the tv

Don’t pick her up after night

12. Memberi saran atau nasehat

Ex: why don’t you meet him and tell the truth?

Is it better if you keep your promise

13. Dapat digunakan pengganti present continous jika verb yang digunakan tidak dapat di –ING ex: agree, believe, consider, except, like, know, wish,

Ex: I love you

Udin likes radio

14. Untuk menyatakan peristiwa saat ini

Ex: mary sings beautiful

The dog bark loudly

Time duration

Adverb of time : every day, on Sunday, from time to time, three times per day, once a week

Adverb of frequency: always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, never, generally, rarely, now and then

Add:

* verb yang akhiran SS, SH, CH dan O ditambah ES

ex: kisses, washes, watches, goes

* verb yang akhiran Y before konsonan (HM) diubah menjadi I dan ditambah ES

Ex: carries, cries, hurries.

* verb yang akhiran Y before vocal (HH) langsung ditambah S

Ex: plays, says.

2. Present Continous Tense

1. Menyatakan perbuatan atau peristiwa yang terjadi saat ini dan masih berlangsung saat berbicara

Ex: she is watching TV now

2. Hal atau peristiwa yang sedang dalam proses atau kerangka dikerjakan

Ex: we are taking course in Egypt

Ani writing a novel this year

3. Mengungkapkan rencana yang sudah pasti akan dilakukan di waktu dekat.

Ex: we are visiting him tonight

4. Perbuatan yang berulang-ulang atau sepertinya terus menerus dan mengungkapkan kejengkelan, kemalasan, keluhan. (biasa memakai adverb f frequency: always, continually, constantly, forever)

Ex: rina is alaways coming late

My grandfather always leaving their dirty plates after eating.

5. Kebiasaan yang bersifat sementara

Ex: I am living in makassar at the moment

We are staying at hotel

6. Situasi yang berubah-ubah

Ex: the population of the world is rising very fast

Is his health getting better

Time Duration

At present : saat ini

At the moment : untuk sementara waktu

Righ now : sekarang ini

This week, now

For the time being : untuk sementara waktu ini

Verb non progressive

* verb yang menunjukkan keadaan mental (mental state)

Ex: know, realize, understand, believe, prefer, recognize, mean, want, need, forget, remember

* emotional state (keadaan emosi)

Ex: love, like, hate, dislike, appreciate, envy, mind, care

* possession (kepemilikan)

Ex: have, belong, posses, own

* verb yang menunjukkan aktivitas panca indera ( sense of human)

Ex: hear, smell, taste, see

3. Past Tense

1. aktifitas atau perbuatan yang terjadi di waktu lampau di sebut waktunya

Ex: she went to makassar last week

2. peristiwa yang terjadi di waktu lampau yang diketahui dan dinyatakan melalui pertanyaan

Ex: when did they visit you?

Whwn did you buy this camera?

3. perbuatan di masa lampau yang sudah jelas terjadi tetapi tidak disebutkan secara pasti waktu kejadiannya

Ex: I bough new car in Jakarta

4. kebiasaan di waktu lampau

Ex: they always carried umbrella

They never drank wine

I would smoke a pack of cigarette

I was used to smoking whwn he was young

5. peristiwa di waktu lampau (tdk disebutkan secara jelas waktunya)tetapi waktunya berselang beberapa lama dari waktu diucapkannya

Ex: angga lived in bandung for a long time. But he is not living there now

Ahmad worked for that company for ten years. But he doesn’t work there anymore now.

Time Duration

2 days ago, yesterday, in 1999, last year, an hour ago.

4. Past continous Tense

1. perbuatan yang sedang berlangsung selama beberapa waktu secara tidak diketahui kapan akhirnya.

Ex: they were discussing something for hours(berjam-jam)

2. aktivitas lampau dengan tanda waktu berupa 2 buah keterangan waktu

Ex: ani was washing car at 07.00this morning / on july last year

3. suatu hal yang mengandung makna yang berangsur-angsur

Ex: the wind was blowing hard

The weather was getting cold when it was darker

4. peristiwa di masa lampau dengan waktu tertentu

Ex: I was watching tv all day yesterday.

5. peristiwa yg terjadi berurutan di masa lampau (kejadian kedua terjadi dimana kejadian pertama masih terjadi)

Ex: I was studying when someone knocked the door

6. aktifitas atau perbuatan dilakukan bersamaan dgn aktifitas lain

Ex: I was reading book while my mother was cooking rice

Time Duration

* Adanya tanda waktu yang jelas

Ex: – at 07.00 last nigh, – on july 1999, – from 06.00-09.00

* Biasa dengan conjunction

Ex: when, while, as, and

5. Present Perfect Tense

1. kejadian di waktu lampau dan masih ada hubungannya dengan waktu kini

Ex: ahmad has taken my pen

2. peristiwa yang baru saja terjadi

Ex: she has just finished her homework

3. peristiwa yang pernah dilakukan dan masih akan dilakukan

4. kejadian di masa lampau dan terus berlangsung hingga sekarang ini

Ex: ani has loved me for all my life

Ahmad has lived in makassar since 1999

5. peristiwa yang diawali waktu lampau dan berhenti pd saat bicara

Ex: I haven’t seen you for weeks. Where have you been?

6. pengalaman yang pernah terjadi atau dilakukan

Ex: I have once live in London

He has never met ahamad before

7. perbuatan yang berulang-ulang sejak dulu (repetition of an activity)

Ex: they have explained the case three times

Time Expression

* just, already, not yet, never, recently(baru2 ini), lately(akhir2 ini)

* So far, until now, up to now, up to the present (sampai saat ini)

* all my life, ever, ever since( sejak saat itu), all day, still, almost.

* time duration lamanya waktu melakukan pekerjaan

Since yang diikuti:

- part of time : since last year, since 3 days ago, since 2000

- kalimat since I left the school

for yang diikuti

- period of time : for three days, for 3 week

* sering juga keterangan waktu : this week, this morning

6. Present Perfect Tense (s + have,has +3c)

1. keadaan atau aktifitas yang sudah terjadi beberapa waktu lalu hingga saat ini masih berlangsung

Ex: I have been living here for 3 month

It has been raining since this morning

2. perbuatan atau aktifitas diawali di masa lampau dan baru saja selesai saat bicara

Oh, here is my key. I have been loking for it all day

The boy have been waiting here since 09.00 for you

3. perbuatan atau peristiwa yang diulang-ulang dalam present perfect tense ( degn time phrase)

Ex: I have been writing a letter since breakfast

Time Duration

* since (since last year, since two week ago, since last year)

* for / during : for two days, during 5 year, for than more a year

7. Past Perfetct Tense ( s + had + 3c)

1. perbuatan yg dimulai/terjadi di waktu lamapau dan terus berlangsung ataupun selesaidi waktu lampau

Ex: Ani had lived in that home since aroel bought it ten year ago.

My father had been a teacher for 15 year in 1995

2. menggantikan simple past apabila mengacu pd peristiwa/perbuatan di masa lampau yg terjadi dalam waktu tertentu.

Ex: bill was in hospital. He had broken his leg in an accident

3. suatu aktifitas yang dilakukan sebelum aktifitas lain di waktu lampau

Ex: ani had worked as adoktor before got married with ahmad

After ahmad had graduated from smu, he continued his study in university

Before police came, the thief had escaped

Time Duration

* after, as soon as, until/till, before, when

8. Past Perfect Continous Tense (s + had + been + 3c)

1. meyatakan suatu peristiwa yang telah berlangsung selama beberapa saat ketika terjadi peristiwa/perbuatan di masa lampau.

Ex: we had been studying English (HM) when they came

I had been sleeping for two hour when I visited her yesterday

2. memberikan tekanan pada lamanya waktu yang dihabiskan untuk menyelesaikan sesuatu di masa lampau, sebelum aktifitas lain dilakukan.

Ex: I had been going with ahmad for two year before basri left us.

3. menggantikan past perfect tense untuk suatu peristiwa yang berulang-ulang.

Ex: ani had been looking for her missing radio.

Time Expression

For … before, before  + clause

Until, whwn  + clause

9. Future Tense

1. perbuatan yang akan terjadi di waktu tertentu di masa akan dating

Ex: I will marry you next year

2. digunakan untuk conditional sentence(kalimat bersyarat)jenis satu induk kalimat(main clause)

Ex: if you go out, I shall/will go out

He will help you if you ask him politely

3. suatu kebiasaan yang akan dilakukan

Ex: the bird will come back next spring

4. peristiwa yang diharapkan, diduga, dikhawatirkan pembicara akan terjadi. Dan seringkali memakai kata2: sure, afraid, worry, believe, hope, except, fear, suppose, perphas, probably, possibly

Ex: I am sure that Angga will be loyal to me

She hopes that they will finish their work tomorrow

5. sebagai induk kalimat suatu ‘ time clause’ yang menunjukan hubungan waktu, biasanya time expression: whwn, as soon as, after, before,

Ex: aqil will buy some candies as soon as he gets some money from mother

After the class end, ani will play basket ball

6. untuk menyatakan permintaan

Ex: shall I close the door

Will you help me

7. menyatakan pengumuman resmi tentang peristiwa yang akan terjadi dan juga untuk ramalan cuaca dalam siaran radio, tv, atau Koran

Ex: suharto will open the turnamen of football tomorrow

On the radio fog will soon clear in all area

8. ‘unpremiditates intentions’ maksud dan keinginan yang akan dilakukan bukan karena rencana sebelum tetapi karena kehendak semata

Ex: my balon hurts. All righ I will buy you another one

9. kelanjutan rencana yang telah ditetapkan semula (gunakan be going to)

Ex: my car is broken, can you help me. Ok I will repair it tomorrow.

What will you do tomorrow? I am going to repair my room mates radio

Time expression

* semua ket waktu yang menunjukkan yang akan datang

Bila ordinary s + to be + going to + be

nB: untuk peristiwa yang sudah dekat benar (lebih dekat dari going to) biasa dinyatakan dgn: s + to be + about/on the project (verge)of

ex: I am about to go to out for shopping

the tree is on the point of falling down

10. Future Continous Tense

1. perbuatan yang sedang berlangsung di waktu tertentu di masa akan datang

Ex: what will you be doing tomorrow morning

I will be getting married on july 2009

2. peristiwa yang sedang terjadi ketika peristiwa lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang

Ex: he will be watching tv when you visit him

3. perbuatan yang akan dilaksanakan tapi bukan merupakan hal yang direncanakan

Ex: she will be helping anna tomorrow

4. digunakan pada kalimat tanya menggantikan present future agar pertanyaan tsb lebih halus dan lebih sopan

Ex: what will you be doing tomorrow morning

5. sesuatu hal yang akan segera berlangsung/terjadi

Ex: when he gets back. He will be getting married soon

Time Expression

· at 07.00 tonight

· at this time next week

· all morning next Sunday

· by this time next week

11. Future Perfect Tense

1. suatu kegiatan yang diperkirakan sudah selesai dilakukan sebelum/hingga batas waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang

Ex: before at 09.00 tonight, I will have completed this

2. aktifitas di masa yang akan datang yang diperkirakan sudah selesai dilakukan sebelum aktifitas lain dilakukan (sesudahnya digunakan simple present)

Ex: our house will renovated when our first son is born

They will have came here before we have lunch

3. suatu hal diperkirakan akan benar-benar terjadi di masa yang akan datang

Ex: The company will have lost many product if most of the worker don’t wont to work

If the rain doesn’t stop till tomorrow, we are sure that the water will have swept everything around us

4. peristiwa yang sudah berlangsung di masa sebelumnya dan akan telah selesai di waktu akan datang

Ex: he will have finished reading the novel by the end of this month

Time Expression

· in the two year’s time

· by the end of , by, by the next agustus

12. Present Future Perfect Continous Tense

1. aktifitas/hal yang diperkirakan sudah dilakukan dan akan terus dilakukan dalam jangka waktu tertentu di masa akan datang.

Ex: I will have been studying English for about two month by the end of this month

2. sama di atas, tapi sebelum aktifitas lain terjadi/dilakukan di masa akan datang

Ex: i will have been studying for two month before I go to cairo

3. aktifitas yang telah dilakukan secara berulang-ulang

Ex: by the end of this month brasil will have been playing in the world cup final games six times

Time Expression

Biasanya hadir untuk menunjukkan:

· Jangka waktu : for two week, on july 2, 1999

· Batasan waktu : by the end of this year, by this time next week, for two year by the next month, for…by..

13. Past Future

1. Rencana yang akan dilakukan di waktu lalu tapi batal karena sebab tertentu

Ex: aroel would give ani card last month unfortunately he left in makassar

2. bermakna seharusnya untuk menyatakan rencana yang gagal

Ex: she should be a nourse but she didn’t have money

3. bermakna akan dalam direct – indirect

Ex: I would take my pen

4. bermakna akan dalam ‘conditional sentense’

14. Past Future Continous Tense

1. aktifitas yang seharusnya tengah berlangsung pada saat tertentu di waktu lampau

Ex: yunus would be going abroad in june last year but his mother didn’t permit

Time Expression

Sama dengan past continous

15. Past Future Perfect Tense

1. prediksi bahwa suatu hal/aktifitas sudah selesai dilakukan sebelum batas waktu tertentu di masa lalu

Ex: anna would have finished he study before the end of September last year but she took one semester vacation

2. suatu hal yang seharusnya sudah terjadi sebelum/ketika aktifitas lain terjadi di masa lampau

Ex: my sister would have born her firs son by the time I entered in smu two years ago

Time Expression

Sama dengan past perfect

Before 9.00 last night, before 1999

16. Past Future Perfect Continous

Hal/aktifitas yang seharusnya berlangsung dalam jangka waktu tertentu di masa lalu.

Ex: andi always come late, our teacher would have been being teraching for an hour when he came yesterday like usual. Unfortunately she had finished before andi came

Time Signalnya

Sama dengan past perfect continous

2.4. Table of English Tenses

tense

Affirmative/Negative/Question

Use

Signal Words

Simple Present

A: He speaks.
N: He does not speak.
Q: Does he speak?

  • action in the present taking place once, never or several times
  • facts
  • actions taking place one after another
  • action set by a timetable or schedule

always, every …, never, normally, often, seldom, sometimes, usually
if sentences type I (If I talk, …)

Present Progressive

A: He is speaking.
N: He is not speaking.
Q: Is he speaking?

  • action taking place in the moment of speaking
  • action taking place only for a limited period of time
  • action arranged for the future

at the moment, just, just now, Listen!, Look!, now, right now

Simple Past

A: He spoke.
N: He did not speak.
Q: Did he speak?

  • action in the past taking place once, never or several times
  • actions taking place one after another
  • action taking place in the middle of another action

yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday
if sentence type II (If I talked, …)

Past Progressive

A: He was speaking.
N: He was not speaking.
Q: Was he speaking?

  • action going on at a certain time in the past
  • actions taking place at the same time
  • action in the past that is interrupted by another action

when, while, as long as

Present Perfect Simple

A: He has spoken.
N: He has not spoken.
Q: Has he spoken?

  • putting emphasis on the result
  • action that is still going on
  • action that stopped recently
  • finished action that has an influence on the present
  • action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking

already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now

Present Perfect Progressive

A: He has been speaking.
N: He has not been speaking.
Q: Has he been speaking?

  • putting emphasis on the course or duration (not the result)
  • action that recently stopped or is still going on
  • finished action that influenced the present

all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week

Past Perfect Simple

A: He had spoken.
N: He had not spoken.
Q: Had he spoken?

  • action taking place before a certain time in the past
  • sometimes interchangeable with past perfect progressive
  • putting emphasis only on the fact (not the duration)

already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day
if sentence type III (If I had talked, …)

Past Perfect Progressive

A: He had been speaking.
N: He had not been speaking.
Q: Had he been speaking?

  • action taking place before a certain time in the past
  • sometimes interchangeable with past perfect simple
  • putting emphasis on the duration or course of an action

for, since, the whole day, all day

Future I Simple

A: He will speak.
N: He will not speak.
Q: Will he speak?

  • action in the future that cannot be influenced
  • spontaneous decision
  • assumption with regard to the future

in a year, next …, tomorrow
If-Satz Typ I (If you ask her, she will help you.)
assumption: I think, probably, perhaps

Future I Simple

(going to)

A: He is going to speak.
N: He is not going to speak.
Q: Is he going to speak?

  • decision made for the future
  • conclusion with regard to the future

in one year, next week, tomorrow

Future I Progressive

A: He will be speaking.
N: He will not be speaking.
Q: Will he be speaking?

  • action that is going on at a certain time in the future
  • action that is sure to happen in the near future

in one year, next week, tomorrow

Future II Simple

A: He will have spoken.
N: He will not have spoken.
Q: Will he have spoken?

  • action that will be finished at a certain time in the future

by Monday, in a week

Future II Progressive

A: He will have been speaking.
N: He will not have been speaking.
Q: Will he have been speaking?

  • action taking place before a certain time in the future
  • putting emphasis on the course of an action

for …, the last couple of hours, all day long

Conditional I Simple

A: He would speak.
N: He would not speak.
Q: Would he speak?

  • action that might take place

if sentences type II
(If I were you, I would go home.)

Conditional I Progressive

A: He would be speaking.
N: He would not be speaking.
Q: Would he be speaking?

  • action that might take place
  • putting emphasis on the course / duration of the action


Conditional II Simple

A: He would have spoken.
N: He would not have spoken.
Q: Would he have spoken?

  • action that might have taken place in the past

if sentences type III
(If I had seen that, I would have helped.)

Conditional II Progressive

A: He would have been speaking.
N: He would not have been speaking.
Q: Would he have been speaking?

  • action that might have taken place in the past
  • puts emphasis on the course / duration of the action


CHAPTER III

CLOSING


3.1. Conclusion


Based on the above exposition, it can be concluded that:


a. The use tenses are needed to use the English language.


b. If we want to deepen the English language we must first find out about the tenses, as in English tenses is very important to master. For us to better understand English and proficient in the conversation.


c. Many uses in studying English tenses.


3.2. Suggestion

At the end of this paper, the authors wanted to deliver advice to several parties, especially to readers. Submission of this advice pertaining to all activities that have been done directly some time ago,


Some writers want to convey suggestions are as follows:


1. In each of the English language education should give priority in studying tenses.


2. Should we need to know in the use of tenses tenses are good according to the formula or according to function. Because of these tenses variety of uses in discussing the use of English.

Such suggestions and hope this writer wishes to convey a useful input for the relevant, as consideration for improvement in future. Thank you.

REFERENCES

Panjaitan.Natalina Kristina dana.2010.TENSES. Belum diterbitkan. Sibolga

STRUCTURE II

TENSES

D

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B

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NAMA : Dana Kristina Natalina Panjaitan

NIM : 090802065

SUBJECT : EDUCATION FOR ENGLISH “B”

STKIP

SANTA MARIA SIBOLGA