Applying Strategy to Enhance Capabilities DRTA Student Reading Comprehension
Reading as one of the basic language skills to be mastered dipembelajaran language. Usually taught in conjunction with three other language skills. As one of language skills, reading gets more attention than any other language skills. There is a high priority. However, many students do not have enough skills in reading and their reading achievement is low.
This study is a Class Action Research and aims to improve students' reading comprehension skills through DRTA (Directed Reading Thinking Activity). This strategy was chosen because it helps develop critical reading skills and encourage active reading. In addition, this strategy has proven, through many studies, have been able to increase reading comprehension achievement and student involvement in the learning process.
The research was conducted in two cycles with reference to the procedures of action research, planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. Each cycle in the study consisted of two meetings for the implementation strategy and a meeting for the test. The research data was collected through several instruments following; observation sheet, a record sheet, questionnaire, and reading comprehension tests.
The results of this study indicate the exact model of DRTA strategies in teaching reading in the MAN Kandangan comprises the following steps: ditahap read the beginning: (1) grouping of students, (2) explain the purpose of the lesson, (3) mengiring students on the topic by giving a few questions and show images, (4) asks the students predict the topic reading of images and titles are given, (5) introduce new vocabulary. Ditahap integrated silent reading: (1) gives the question, (2) asked students to predict reading and then writing it in a sheet, (3) ask students to share with the group. In this case, some predictions of students' written on the board, (4) assign one student to read out followed by all students in silent reading, (5) asked to record information, (6) asks students to discuss with the group. In the final stages of reading: (1) commissioned to examine and prove their predictions, (2) request to find evidence to support the prediction, (3) discuss student predictions, (4) asks the students to do the work, (5) discuss students' responses.
Furthermore, the results of this study explained that the strategy DRTA improve students' reading comprehension. This increase can be seen from the increase in reading comprehension scores of students who can achieve the target value (75 in the range 0 to 100), ie on the initial test, there are only 8 students or 24% of the 33 students who can achieve the target value. In the first cycle, there are 17 students or 48% of the 33 students who can achieve the target value. In the second cycle, there are 22 students or 67% out of 33 students who can achieve the target value. In addition, this invention describes that the strategy of improving student success DRTA actively involved in class.
Based on these results, it can be concluded that the strategy DRTA not only successful in improving students' reading comprehension but also can improve student engagement in the process pembelajara. Therefore, some suggestions are made. First, teachers of English can apply DRTA strategy in learning to read. They must use reading text that has not been read by students and they also have a positive, supportive, and encouraging. Second, the researchers then suggested they do the same research strategy using DRTA on other language skills and on other types of text such as Expository, reports, and recount.
Directed Reading-Thinking Activity
A. The Nature of Writing
Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) is a reading comprehension strategy that is used in each of the three stages of reading (pre-reading, during reading, and post-reading). It emphasizes prediction (thinking ahead), verification (confirmation), and reading with a purpose.
DRTA helps students realize that prediction and verification of predictions are essential parts of the reading process. Students learn that by reading with a purpose, they can more easily focus their predictions.
Good readers automatically predict and confirm what will or will not happen in the text and merge their knowledge and ideas with the author’s. Poor readers do not make predictions or verifications as they read. DRTA helps readers learn to make predictions before they read and verify those predictions as they read.
Use DRTA with students who have difficulty comprehending text or who need help understanding that reading is an interactive process between the author and the reader. Teach DRTA in-group or one-on-one situations. After working through the strategy with the students (guided practice), encourage them to use it independently.
Below are the guidelines for helping students apply DRTA in each of the three stages of reading.
1. Survey the text with the students, looking for clues about the content – clues such as titles, section headings, key words, illustrations.
2. Help the students make predictions about the text’s content.
3. Have students write their predictions down on a Prediction Verification Checklist, as you write them on the board or overhead transparency.
4. Make sure the students understand how to use the checklist to classify their predictions as: proved, disproved, partially right/wrong, requires revision, not mentioned, not enough information.
5. Help the students establish a purpose for reading by directing them to read the text to determine whether it proves or disproves their predictions.
1. Have the students read the text, silently or aloud, individually or in groups, to verify their predictions.
2. Instruct the students to place a check mark under the appropriate category on the Prediction Verification Checklist as they read the text.
1. Have the students compare their predictions with the actual content of the text.
2. Ask the students to analyze their checklist and determine how well they predicted the content of the text.
3. Verify that the students have learned the DRTA strategy by having them answer the following metacognitive questions:
• What is the name of the strategy you learned?
• How does the strategy help you understand what you read?
• What should you do before you read? While you read? After you read?
Why Is It Important?
Most students require explicit instruction in reading comprehension strategies (Tierney 1982).
Good readers make predictions and verify or refute them as they read. They also make adjustments to what they think will come next based on the text. DR-TA is a strategy that explicitly teaches students to good reading habits.
How Can You Make It Happen?
Before using this strategy with students, create a classroom climate in which students are free to state their ideas and share their thinking. This is especially necessary for students who are not risk-takers. Because these students want to be correct the first time they answer a question, DR-TA can be challenging for them. DR-TA asks students to predict the unknown in a text, and at times students will be incorrect. For some students, you may want to consider having them write their predictions in a journal rather than posting them on an overhead transparency or the chalkboard. Encourage students not to be intimidated by taking a risk and not to feel pressure to state correct predictions.
As an introductory lesson to DR-TA, select a reading passage, and determine several appropriate stopping points within it for students to make, verify, or modify predictions. Use sticky notes to mark students' copies of the text in advance to prevent students from reading too far ahead. Be cautious not to interrupt the flow of the text too many times, as this will adversely affect comprehension.
When you use this strategy, guide and stimulate students' thinking through the use of questions. Pose open-ended questions, and encourage students to state their predictions, valuing and supporting all ideas. Wait a few seconds after asking a question, to allow students to process the information and form a prediction.
At the beginning of the lesson, write the title of the book or passage on an overhead transparency or the chalkboard. Ask students, "Given this title, what do you think the passage will be about?" Accept and record all predictions on the transparency or chalkboard. Ask students, "Why do you think that?" to encourage them to justify their responses and activate prior knowledge.
Preview the illustrations and/or headings of the passage. Ask students to revise their predictions based on this new information. Make changes to the predictions on the transparency or chalkboard.
Have students read silently. Stop them after the first section of the passage, and lead a class discussion to verify or modify predictions. Ask students to cite the text which caused them to confirm or change a prediction. Ask students, "What in the passage makes you think that? Can you prove it?" Make changes to the predictions on the transparency or chalkboard.
Repeat this process until students have read each section of the passage. Verify or modify the predictions made at the beginning of the lesson.
As students become more comfortable with this process, have each student write predictions in alearning log or on a piece of paper. Then, in small groups, students can discuss their predictions and share their thinking processes. Next ask students to write summary statements about how their predictions compared to the passage.
Using DR-TA in a heterogeneous group can be a challenge due to the range of reading levels that may be present. In this case, you may want to select two passages on the same topic – one higher-level and one lower-level. Divide the class into groups to read the text that is appropriate for them. These groups should share information as described in the previous parargraph.
If your students are not yet readers, the strategy is referred to as Directed Listening-Thinking Activity (DL-TA) and proceeds the same way, except you read the text to the class. To use DL-TA for challenged readers, have a taped version of the passage available. Listening to text read aloud provides challenged readers with opportunities to attend to and comprehend material that they would be unable to read for themselves (Gillet and Temple 1994).