Selasa, 17 April 2012

Applying Strategy to Enhance Capabilities DRTA Student Reading Comprehension

1. Background of the study
Reading as one of the basic language skills to be mastered in language learning. Usually taught in conjunction with three other language skills. As one of language skills, reading gets more attention than any other language skills. There is a high priority. However, many students do not have enough skills in reading and their reading achievement is low.
This study is a class action research and aims to improv students' reading comprehension skills through drta (directed reading thinking activity). This strategy was chosen because it helps develop critical reading skills and encourage active reading. In addition, this strategy has proven, through many studies, have been able to increase of reading comprehension achievement and student involvement in the learning process.
In the 21st century, students will have access to more information than any other students before them. They must learn to locate, assess, and use this information wisely. Today’s students must not only read the words on the page and understand them, but they must also think critically about the information they are reading. The Directed Reading - Thinking Activity (Stauffer, 1969) is an explicit teaching method that focuses student attention on the purpose for reading. It can be used in any content area and with fiction or nonfiction text. The DR-TA encourages readers to become actively engaged with the text through a three-step process: sample the text, make a prediction, then read the text to confirm the prediction. Good readers make and verify predictions as they read. This activity can assist students in developing that skill.
DRTA, developed by Russell Stauffer (1969), involves reading for a purpose determined by the students. DRTA helps students develop skills in reading and thinking. It encourages risk-taking via prediction. While DRTA can be successfully employed at any grade level, it is recommended as an integral part of the Language Arts programme in grades one through six. It is a technique which motivates and encourages reluctant readers.
DRTA is a dynamic group reading activity in which individuals' hypotheses and print mesh to foster discussion. Background knowledge is brought to the reading experience. To provide an environment for this process, Stauffer recommends groups of eight to twelve students.
Directed Reading Thinking Activity has been shown to be a motivating approach to reading. It stimulates thinking and makes the students, not the teacher, responsible for setting the purpose.

Review of Literature
Directed Reading-Thinking Activity
A. The Nature of Writing
Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) is a reading comprehension strategy that is used in each of the three stages of reading (pre-reading, during reading, and post-reading). It emphasizes prediction (thinking ahead), verification (confirmation), and reading with a purpose.
DRTA helps students realize that prediction and verification of predictions are essential parts of the reading process. Students learn that by reading with a purpose, they can more easily focus their predictions.
Good readers automatically predict and confirm what will or will not happen in the text and merge their knowledge and ideas with the author’s. Poor readers do not make predictions or verifications as they read. DRTA helps readers learn to make predictions before they read and verify those predictions as they read.
Use DRTA with students who have difficulty comprehending text or who need help understanding that reading is an interactive process between the author and the reader. Teach DRTA in-group or one-on-one situations. After working through the strategy with the students (guided practice), encourage them to use it independently.
Below are the guidelines for helping students apply DRTA in each of the three stages of reading.
1. Survey the text with the students, looking for clues about the content – clues such as titles, section headings, key words, illustrations.
2. Help the students make predictions about the text’s content.
3. Have students write their predictions down on a Prediction Verification Checklist, as you write them on the board or overhead transparency.
4. Make sure the students understand how to use the checklist to classify their predictions as: proved, disproved, partially right/wrong, requires revision, not mentioned, not enough information.
5. Help the students establish a purpose for reading by directing them to read the text to determine whether it proves or disproves their predictions.
During Reading
1. Have the students read the text, silently or aloud, individually or in groups, to verify their predictions.
2. Instruct the students to place a check mark under the appropriate category on the Prediction Verification Checklist as they read the text.
1. Have the students compare their predictions with the actual content of the text.
2. Ask the students to analyze their checklist and determine how well they predicted the content of the text.
3. Verify that the students have learned the DRTA strategy by having them answer the following metacognitive questions:
• What is the name of the strategy you learned?
• How does the strategy help you understand what you read?
• What should you do before you read? While you read? After you read?
Why Is It Important?
Most students require explicit instruction in reading comprehension strategies (Tierney 1982).
Good readers make predictions and verify or refute them as they read. They also make adjustments to what they think will come next based on the text. DR-TA is a strategy that explicitly teaches students to good reading habits.
How Can You Make It Happen?
Before using this strategy with students, create a classroom climate in which students are free to state their ideas and share their thinking. This is especially necessary for students who are not risk-takers. Because these students want to be correct the first time they answer a question, DR-TA can be challenging for them. DR-TA asks students to predict the unknown in a text, and at times students will be incorrect. For some students, you may want to consider having them write their predictions in a journal rather than posting them on an overhead transparency or the chalkboard. Encourage students not to be intimidated by taking a risk and not to feel pressure to state correct predictions.
As an introductory lesson to DR-TA, select a reading passage, and determine several appropriate stopping points within it for students to make, verify, or modify predictions. Use sticky notes to mark students' copies of the text in advance to prevent students from reading too far ahead. Be cautious not to interrupt the flow of the text too many times, as this will adversely affect comprehension.
When you use this strategy, guide and stimulate students' thinking through the use of questions. Pose open-ended questions, and encourage students to state their predictions, valuing and supporting all ideas. Wait a few seconds after asking a question, to allow students to process the information and form a prediction.
At the beginning of the lesson, write the title of the book or passage on an overhead transparency or the chalkboard. Ask students, "Given this title, what do you think the passage will be about?" Accept and record all predictions on the transparency or chalkboard. Ask students, "Why do you think that?" to encourage them to justify their responses and activate prior knowledge.
Preview the illustrations and/or headings of the passage. Ask students to revise their predictions based on this new information. Make changes to the predictions on the transparency or chalkboard.
Have students read silently. Stop them after the first section of the passage, and lead a class discussion to verify or modify predictions. Ask students to cite the text which caused them to confirm or change a prediction. Ask students, "What in the passage makes you think that? Can you prove it?" Make changes to the predictions on the transparency or chalkboard.
Repeat this process until students have read each section of the passage. Verify or modify the predictions made at the beginning of the lesson.
As students become more comfortable with this process, have each student write predictions in alearning log or on a piece of paper. Then, in small groups, students can discuss their predictions and share their thinking processes. Next ask students to write summary statements about how their predictions compared to the passage.
Using DR-TA in a heterogeneous group can be a challenge due to the range of reading levels that may be present. In this case, you may want to select two passages on the same topic – one higher-level and one lower-level. Divide the class into groups to read the text that is appropriate for them. These groups should share information as described in the previous parargraph.
If your students are not yet readers, the strategy is referred to as Directed Listening-Thinking Activity (DL-TA) and proceeds the same way, except you read the text to the class. To use DL-TA for challenged readers, have a taped version of the passage available. Listening to text read aloud provides challenged readers with opportunities to attend to and comprehend material that they would be unable to read for themselves (Gillet and Temple 1994).

The formulation of the problem is of great importance in research activity, because the problem is the object to be studied and sought a way out through research. This statement is relevant to that expressed by Suharsimi Arikunto in his study an Approach Procedure says that: "The issue should be a part of one's needs to be solved, people want to conduct research because he wanted to get the solution of the problem at hand." (Surahmad, 1989:22) From the opinion of the above can be concluded that the formulation of the problem has become a "needs" in one study, because without flow problem formulation and systematic research will not find the answer to the problem being studied. Meanwhile, Faisal Sanapiah argued in Education Research Methodology: The research needs to be defined and formulated the problem to be investigated. Affirmation of these problems at once describe the focus of the direction followed later in the process of research. Formulation of the problem is quite limited in scope to allow withdrawal of a firm conclusion. (Sudiyono, 1992:61) From the above definitions, we can conclude that something is problematic, would require solving. In the research we are required to seek a solution to the problem. Starting from this background that has been described above, then the problem can be formulated are:
1. Is there a role of guidance and counseling in overcoming learning difficulties of students in junior secondary school Wali Songo Village District Laweyan Sumberasih Probolinggo.
2. How does the role of guidance and counseling in overcoming learning difficulties of students in junior secondary school Wali Songo Village District Laweyan Sumberasih Probolinggo.

C. Research Objectives The goal of research in the scientific work is the target to be achieved through a series of research activities, because of all the cultivated must have a specific purpose in accordance with the problem. The purpose of the study will be helpful to the achievement of optimal results and can provide direction to the activities undertaken in the study. In accordance with these perceptions and berpijakpada formulation of the problem that has been mentioned, then this study has the objective:
1. Want to know the presence or absence of the role of guidance and counseling in overcoming learning difficulties of students in junior secondary school Wali Songo Village District Laweyan Sumberasih Probolinggo.
2. Want to find out how the role of guidance and counseling in dealing with students with learning disabilities at the junior secondary school guidance Wali Songo Village District Laweyan Sumberasih Probolinggo.
D. significance of research results is expected to be beneficial for all parties concerned primarily for the following parties: 1. For Teachers As a means to take the initiative in the context of refining the program so that the learning process between teachers as educators in schools and students as those who need to be educated can complement each other and work well together, so that student achievement will always increase. 2. As an input for the agency in taking the appropriate policy and provide / add facilities and infrastructure in order to provide excitement in teaching and learning in order to improve the quality and student achievement, while enhancing the quality of education. 3. For Authors For training materials in the writing of scientific papers, as well as additional information on guidance and counseling at the institution, especially in junior secondary school madrassa Wali Songo Village District Lawean Sumberasih Probolinggo.
E. Research Scope and Limitations of Research on the role of guidance and counseling in overcoming learning difficulties of students in junior secondary school Wali Songo Village Laweyan Sumberasih Probolinggo District has a very wide range. However, because of the limitations of time, effort, funds, and the capabilities of the author, then the scope is limited research on this issue as follows: 1. Characteristics of study sites, namely the general description of the site which covers the history of the founding of madrasas, organizational structure, and other data required in the study. 2. The forms and penyulihan guidance given by teachers to students either preventive or curative in overcoming learning difficulties of students. 3. Data on the acquisition scores of questionnaires that have been deployed to determine whether there is the role of guidance and counseling in overcoming learning difficulties of students in junior secondary school Wali Songo Village District Laweyan Sumberasih Probolinggo.

A. Sample thesis The draft study In order to search for valid data, the study compiled by the research design as effectively and efficiently as possible, so that in later writing does not take too long and can run smoothly as expected by the researchers. To obtain data about the role of guidance and counseling, researchers used a questionnaire method that provided students with questions-questions about parent activities related to the child's personality. The data were obtained using a questionnaire and then tabulated and placed in a table format by using the formula percentage (%) which was then followed by some analysis of the results of the questionnaire data that has been achieved. But before the research activities carried out, then first perform the following steps: 1) Preparation In an activity, preparations are elements that are very important. So also in research activities, preparation is the element that needs to be calculated with good cause that will either facilitate the course of the study. In connection with the title and the formulation of the problem mentioned in the previous chapter, the preparation in conducting this study are as follows: Example thesis a) Formulate a plan In this plan the author sets out some things like the following. 1) Title of research 2) The reason the study 3) Problems of research 4) The research objective 5) Object of the study 6) The method b) Permission to conduct research with a letter of introduction from Mr. Dean of the Faculty of Tarbiyah Islamic Institute Nurul Jadid Paiton Probolinggo, the author applied for permission to junior secondary school head Wali Songo Village District Laweyan Sumberasih Probolinggo. Thus the authors have obtained permission to conduct to conduct research in the area. c) Prepare a data collection tool that measures relating to older people, namely the set of instruments and questionnaires and interviews. 2) Implementation Once the preparation is considered mature, the next step was to conduct research. In the implementation phase of this research to collect the necessary data by using several methods, among others: * Interviews * Questionnaires * Documentation * Completion Upon completion of research activities, the authors began to formulate the next steps, namely: * Develop a framework of research reports by tabulating and analyzing data that has been obtained, which were consulted to Supervisor in the hope if there are things that need to be revised, will be conducted so as to obtain an optimal result. * Reports that have been completed and will be at stake in front of the Board of Examiners, and the results of this study duplicated and delivered to the parties concerned. B. Population and Study Sample 1. Population Population by Hadi Sutrisno are all individuals for whom the realities that obtained from samples that would be generalizable. While understanding the sample is part of the investigated individuals' (1994:70). Meanwhile, according to T. Raka Joni "is the entire population of individuals who are, who ever and there may be real which is the target of an investigation on" ( 13). Starting from the definition above, then in this study, the population is all students MTs. Wali Songo Village District Lawean Sumberasih Probolinggo totaling 98 people. 2. Study Sample definition of the sample, Suharsimi Arikunto states that, "The sample is partially or representative of the population under study" (1997:177). Furthermore Suharsimi states that: "For just ancer-ancer then when the subject is less than 100 over 100 better taken all, so the research is the study population, then if the subject is large can be taken between 10-15% or 20-25% or more depending on at least from: Example of a thesis. The ability of researchers looked at in terms of time, effort and funds. 2. Observation of a narrow land area of each subject, because it concerns the extent of the data. 3. The extent of risk borne by the researchers, for researchers who are at greater risk, the result will be greater "(1992:107) Based on the definition above, then in this study took a sample of students starting grade I to grade III. The number of students that writers make the sample are as follows: Class I Class II amounted to 15 students totaling 15 students numbered 10 students Class III Thus the number of samples in this study as many as 40 students. The sampling techniques (sampling) according to Saifuddin Azwar there are several kinds: 1. Probability is a probability sample samples sampling technique in which each element, the element or member of the population has an equal chance to be selected into the sample. Some ways of probability sampling techniques are as follows: * a simple random sampling (simple random sampling) is the process of sampling of the population has an equal chance to be drawn into the sample. * Sampling stratified (stratified random sampling) is a sampling process in which the state is not the same population (heterogeneous) * Sampling groups (cluster sampling) is a sampling process in which the state population is not known with certainty. * Sampling systematic (systematic random sampling) is a sampling process in which the elements or just the first member selected from a random sample, while the subsequent members are systematically selected based on a certain way. 2. Non-probability samples of non-probability sample is a sampling process in which every member of the population have the same opportunity to be selected into the sample. Various kinds of non-probability sampling technique as follows: * Sampling by chance (accidental sampling) is sampling by taking or anyone who happened to be there. * Sampling intentional (purposive sampling) the sampling process on the basis of the consideration required by the researcher in his research. (1998:87-89) Based on the theory of sampling conducted by the researchers is to use non-probability sampling technique by intentionally sampling. Example thesis
C. Data Collection Techniques To obtain the data corresponding to what is expected, so the data obtained it is completely valid, then in any research first must determine what methods will be used to receive and collect them. Because the method is the key to success in a study. The method used in collecting data in this study are as follows: 1. Methods Questionnaire questionnaire method can be performed in the presence of a number of written questions used to obtain information from respondents in terms of reports about his personal or other matters that he knew. (Arikunto, 1993:188) In this case the source data is 40 students were given questionnaires to obtain data on the implementation of guidance and counseling in junior secondary school Wali Songo Village District Lawean Sumberasih Probolinggo. 2. Documentation methods documentation method is to find data about things such as notes or variable transcripts, agendas, and so on. (Arikunto, 1993:198) In this study researchers used a method of documentation is to obtain data on the MTs. Wali Songo especially data on the number of students of students, educators and state employees, the organizational structure of institutions, facilities and infrastructure that exist at the agency.
D. Method of Data Analysis After holding a series of activities (research) by using some of the above methods, the data collected was analyzed using descriptive techniques. This technique is used to analyze qualitative data or data that can not be realized with the numbers

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